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The objective of this article is to study the cultural development of ancient communities located between Loei and Huai Nam Mong river valleys before the 14thcentury, based on archaeological evidence. Study results are as follows: In prehistoric period, the incipient community was found on the Mekong River at the north of Sakon Nakhon basin, dating from 5,500 - 2,700 B.P. Later, there existed ancient communities at the Phu Lon archaeological site, dating from 4,000 - 3,500 B.P. into the Iron Age (2,500-1,500 B.P.), that smelted and exported copper ore and iron throughout the northeastern region. Inland communities were located on the Loei River and at the east of Phu Phan mountain range. The Loei communities produced typical stucco works on terracotta wares whereas the Phu Phan communities’ terracotta showed some relations with other communities of Ban Chiang culture.
In historic period, there existed ancient communities of Dvaravati culture, with no moat or mound around their settlements. Theravada Buddhism was dominant in these areas, except for communities at the east of Phu Phan mountain range where Mahayana Buddhism and arts were accepted from Cambodia, as evidenced by local worship statues.
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