The Muslim Sultans of Singora in the 17th Century
This article interrogates the rise and demise of the three Muslim rulers of Singora (present-day Songkhla) in the 17th century, who preceded Songkhla’s Hokkien “Rayas” recently described by Bisalputra and Sng (2020). In addition to taking a “connected histories” approach to these political developments, we demonstrate the utility of a multidisciplinary methodology, which combines ethnographic fieldwork with interactions with a range of primary and secondary sources. We reveal that the rise and demise of the political fortunes of Datuk Mogul (r. [?]–1620), Sultan Suleiman (r. 1620–1676) and Sultan Mustapha (r. 1676–1685) are linked to commercial competition between Singora and Pattani over decades in which Dutch and English commercial interests were expanded in this portion of the Siamese-Malay Peninsula.
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