Sang Hyang Kamahāyānikan: Translation and Analytical Study

Main Article Content

Budi Utomo

Abstract

This dissertation has three objectives, namely: 1. to examine the origin and historical
development of The Sanghyang Kamahayanikan; 2. to study the main concept of The
Sanghyang Kamahayanikan; 3. to analyze and critique the versions of the Sanghyang
Kamahayanikan. This Dissertation is documentary research. The data and observations are
limited to the Sanghyang Kamahayanikan text, translation, interpretation and explanation.
Sanghyang Kamahayanikan is an esoteric Buddhist text. Venerable Mpu Shri Sambhara
Surya Warama it about 929-947 C from East Java, the successor of Mataram Kingdom,
which was shifted to there. The oldest literature was found at Lombok Island in 1900 CE.
Professor Yunboll discussed it in 1908 and it was translated into the Dutch language by
J. deKatt in 1910. Later, Professor Wuff inspected it.
The text is restricted for the teachings in the Mahayana school, with a focus on the
tantric path of the Yogacara School using Mantranaya or the Mantra method. The text has
been divided into two parts, each of which can be read independently. The first section
entitled Sang Hyang Kamahayanan Mantranaya consists of 42 Sanskrit verses, each with
a related commentary in elaborate old Javanese and regrouped under 11 subtopics and a
conclusion. The second section consists of instructions in 86 verses, written mainly in
old Javanese, with a few middle-level Sanskrit references. Both texts belong to the same
school and are connected. The text is in a question and answer form.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Utomo, B. (2018). Sang Hyang Kamahāyānikan: Translation and Analytical Study. The Journal of International Association of Buddhist Universities (JIABU), 11(3), 253–267. Retrieved from https://so06.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/Jiabu/article/view/219145
Section
Research Article

References

Acri, Andrea, Esoteric Buddhism in Mediaeval Maritime Asia: Network of Masters, Texts,
Icons (ed. Andrea Acri). Published: ISEAS Yusof Ishak Institute: 2016.
Chandra, Lokesh ed. The art and culture of South-East Asia. New Delhi: International
Academy of Indian Culture and Aditya Prakashan, 1991. 430p., 20p. of plates.
(Sata-pitaka series, 364.) 151-164 Hamilton Asia NX577. A78 1991.
de Jong, J.W. Notes On The Sources and Text of Sań Hyań Mahāyānan Mantranaya. BKI.
130 in Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde / Journal of the Humanities
and Social Sciences of Southeast Asia and Oceania 130(4) · October 1974
Ensink, Jacob (1978), “Siva-Buddhism in Java and Bali,” In: Bechert, Heinz, ed. Buddhism
in Ceylon and studies on religious syncretism in Buddhist countries: report on a
symposium in Gottingen. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1978. 178-198
Hamilton Asia BQ352 .B83
Ishii, Kazuko, San hian kamahayanikan (sei daijoron) ni miru ko jawa no mikkyo (old
Javanese esoteric buddhism as seen in the Sań Hyań Kamahāyānikan). Tónan
Ajia Kenkyū, 1989
. Borobudur, the Tattvasamgraha, and the Sań Hyań Kamahāyānikan, In: Lokesh
Chandra, ed. The art and culture of South-East Asia. New Delhi: International
Academy of Indian Culture and Aditya Prakashan, 1991. 430p., 20p. of plates.
(Sata-pitaka series, 364.) 151-164 Hamilton Asia NX577. A78 1991.
. “The Correlation of Verses of the ‘Sang Kyang Kamahāyānan Mantranaya’ with
Vajrabodhi’s ‘Japa-sutra’” (PDF). Area and Culture Studies. 44.
Kandahjaya, Hudaya. San Hyan Kamahāyānikan, Borobudur, and the origins od esoteric
Buddhism in Indonesia, article on Esoteric Buddhism in Mediaeval Maritime Asia:
Network of Masters, Texts, Icons (ed. Andrea Acri). Published: ISEAS Yusof Ishak
Institute: 2016.
Fremantle, Fransesca. A Critical Study of the Guhyasamāja Tantra. University of London:
1971.
Hooykaas, C, Balinese Bauddha Brahmans. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company.
1973.
Kats, J. Sań Hyań Kamāhāyanikan.’s-Gragenhage: Martinus Nijhoff. 1910.
Krom, N.J., The Sań Hyań Kamahāyānikan: An Old Javanese Mantrayana Buddhist Catechism,
1940.Masefield, Peter (Transl), The Udāna, Oxford: Pali Text Society, 1994.La
Vallée Poussin, “Tāntrism (Buddhist) in James Hastings, ed., Encyclopaedia of
Religion and Ethics (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1908-1926),
Mardiwarsito, Kamus Jawa Kuna – Indonesia, Ende –Flores: Nusa Indah, 1981.
Pigeaud, Th.. Java in the 14th Century. Vol I-V. the Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. 1960-63
Poerbatjaraka. Riwajat Indonesia I. Djakarta: Jajasan Pembangun. 1951.
. Kapustakaan Djawi. Djakarta: Djambatan 1964.
Pott, P. H. Yoga and Yantra. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1966.
Sugriwa, I. Bagus. Sanghyang Kamahāyānikan, Pustaka Bali Mas, 1957.
Sumatijnana, Sanghyang Kamahāyānikan, Published by Bumisambhara, Jakarta, 2003.
Translation Team, Sanghyang Kamahāyānikan, Published by Ministry of Religious Affair
of Republic of Indonesian, Jakarta, 1979.
Sakurai, M. Kriyāsangrahapanjika no Kanjōron (i), Chizan Gakuho, 1988.
Shukla, M.S. (1990), Art History and Central Javanese Buddhism--c. 800-c.1000 A.D.: In:
Kuppuram, G.; Kumudamani, K., eds. Researches in Indian history, archaeology, art
and religion: Prof. Upendra Thakur felicitation volume. Delhi: Sundeep Prakashan,
1990. 2v. 1990 v.2, 539-542, Hamilton Asia DS423 .R47 1990Sarkar, H.B. Corpus
of the Inscription of Java I, Calcutta Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyay. 1971.
Singhal, S. D. Candi Mendut and the Mahavairocana Sutra. In Bahasa – Sastra – Budaya,
Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada University Press, 1985.
Skorupski, Tadeusz, ed. and trans. The Sarvadurgatipariśodhana Tantra: Elimination of
All Evil Destinies. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1983.
Skorupski, Tadeusz, trans. Kriyāsaṃgraha: Compendium of Buddhist Rituals. Tring: The
Institute of Buddhist Studies, 2002.
Snellgrove, David L. “The Notion of Divine Kingship in Tantric Buddhism.” In La Regalità
Sacra: Contributi al Tema dell’ VIII Congresso Internazionale di Storia delle
Religioni. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 1959.
Snellgrove, David L., ed. and trans. The Hevajra Tantra: A Critical Study. London: Oxford
University Press, 1959.
Snellgrove, David L. Indo-Tibetan Buddhism: Indian Buddhists and Their Tibetan Successors, 2
vols. Boston: Shambhala, 1987.
Soebadio, Haryati. Jñanasiddhanta. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1971
Soewito, Santoso. Sutasoma: A Study in Javanese Wajrayana. New Delhi: Intemational
Academy of Indian Culture, 1975.
Speyer, J. S. Ein. Altjavanischer Mahāyānistischer Katechismus. Zeitschrif der Deutschen
Morgentandischen Gesellchaft: 347 −362, 1913.
Strickmann, Michel. “The Consecration Sūtra: A Buddhist Book of Spells.” In Chinese
Buddhist Apocrypha, ed. Robert E. Buswell. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press,
1990.
Stutterheim, W.F. Studies in Indonesian Archaeology. The Hague: Martinus Nijjoff,
1956.
Sundberg, J. The Wilderness Monks of the Abhayagirivihara and the origins of SinoJavanese Esoteric Buddhism. In: Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde
160 (2004), no: 1, Leiden, 95-123
Wayman, Alex (1982), “Reflections On The Theory Of Barabudur As A Mandala,” In:
Gomez, Luis; Woodward, Hiram W. Jr., eds. Barabudur: history and significance
of a Buddhist monument. Berkeley, CA: Asian Humanities Press, 1981. 253p.
(Berkeley Buddhist studies series, 2.) 139-172 Hamilton Asia BQ6343.B67 B37
Woodward, Hiram W., Jr. (1982), “Barabudur as a stupa,” In: Gomez, Luis; Woodward,
Hiram W. Jr., eds. Barabudur: History And Significance Of A Buddhist Monument.
Berkeley, CA: Asian Humanities Press, 1981. 253p. (Berkeley Buddhist studies
series, 2.) 121-138 Hamilton Asia BQ6343.B67 B37
Wuff, K. Sań Hyań Kamahāyānan Mantranaya. Det, Kgl. Danske Videnskaberne. Selskab,
Historisk – filologiske Meddelelser. Vo1. 21, pt, 4, Copenhagen: Levin & Munksgaard,
1935.
Zoetmulder, P. J. Old Javanese – English Dictionary, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff,
1982.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanghyang_Kamahāyānikan
https://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?story_fbid=694093770639158&id=688891344
492734
https://bhumisambhara.wordpress.com/2009/03/30/6/
http://shivabuddha.blogspot.com/2010/08/sang-hyang-Kamahāyānikan.html
http://blogsitusku.blogspot.com/2012/09/kitab-sang-hyang-Kamahāyānikan-bagian.html
http://odisha.gov.in/e-Magazine/ Orissareview/ 2013/ jul/ engpdf/ 114-120.pdf
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indonesian_Esoteric_Buddhism