L1 Literacy Strategy Impact on L2 Word-Priming Effects

Main Article Content

Clay Williams

Abstract

Previous studies have shown that students studying an L2 whose orthography differs significantly from their L1 may exhibit problems in utilizing both lexical and non-lexical routes in processing L2 text at the word level. This study tests the relative levels of orthographic and phonological priming susceptibility of Japanese students, both in their L1 (Japanese) and in their L2 (English), in a lexical decision task using a masked priming paradigm. The resultant data shows limitations in L2 processing that appear to stem from an L1 interference effect occurring during word-level processing. Prior experimental data from Japanese and Chinese speaker populations will be used to demonstrate that there are language-specific word-processing strategies that, when misapplied to a dissimilar L2, can negatively affect the efficiency and proficiency of students’ word identification processes. The author will offer suggestions on how best to ameliorate the problem through targeted pedagogical approaches and techniques designed to assist learners in developing the L2-specific word identification processes needed for the development of effective reading skills.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Section
Articles
Author Biography

Clay Williams, Akita International University

Clay Williams, Akita International University, Yuwa, Akita-city 010-1292, JAPAN Email: williams@aiu.ac.jp

References

Akamatsu, N. (2005). Effects of second language reading proficiency and first language orthography on second language word recognition. In V. Cook & B. Bassetti (Eds.), Second language writing systems (pp.238-259). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

Bodner, G. & Masson, M. (2003). Beyond spreading activation: An influence of relatedness proportion on masked semantic priming. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 10(3), 645-652.

Bournot-Trites, M., & Tellowitz, U. (2005). Report of current research on the effect of the second language learning on first language literacy skills. Available online at http://www.acpi.ca/documents/report.pdf

Castles, A. & M. Coltheart (2004). Is there a causal link from phonological awareness to success in learning to read? Cognition 91, 77–111.

Chikamatsu, N. (2006). Developmental word recognition: A study of L1 English readers of L2 Japanese. The Modern Language Journal, 90(1), 67-85.

Chu-Chang, M. (1981). The dependency relation between oral language and reading in bilingual children. Journal of Education, 163(1), pp. 30–55.

Coltheart, M. (1978). Lexical access in simple reading tasks. In G. Underwood (Ed.), Strategies of information processing (pp. 151–216). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Coltheart, M., Rastle, K., Perry, C., Langdon, R., & Ziegler, J. (2001). DRC: A dual route cascaded model of visual word recognition and reading aloud. Psychological Review, 108, 204-256.

Devitto Z., & Burgess C. (2004). Theoretical and methodological implications of language experience and vocabulary skill: Priming of strongly and weakly associated words. Brain and Cognition, 55, 295–299.

Ferrand L, & Grainger J. (1992). Phonology and orthography in visual word recognition: Evidence from masked nonword priming. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 45A, 353–372.

Ferrand L, & Grainger J. (1993). The time-course of phonological and orthographic code activation in the early phases of visual word recognition. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 31, 119–122.

Forster, K. I. (1976). Accessing the mental lexicon. In R.J.Wales & E.Walker (Eds.). New Approaches to Language Mechanisms (pp 257-287). Amsterdam, Netherlands: North-Holland.

Grainger, J., & Ferrand, L. (1996). Masked orthographic and phonological priming in visual word recognition and naming: Cross-task comparisons. Journal of Memory and Language, 35(5), 623-647.

Gudschinsky, S. (1977). Mother-tongue literacy and second language learning. In W. F. Mackey and T. Andersson (Eds.), Bilingualism in early childhood (pp. 250-258). Rowley, MA: Newbury House Publishers.

Halderman, L. K., Asby, J. & Perfetti, C.A. (2012). Phonology: An early and integral role in identifying words. In J. S. Adelman (ed.), Visual word recognition: Models and methods, orthography and phonology, Vol. 1 (207-228). London: Psychology Press.

Humphreys, G. W., Evett, L. J., & Taylor, D. E. (1982). Automatic phonological priming in visual word recognition. Memory and Cognition, 10, 128–152.

Koda, K. (1997). Orthographic knowledge in L2 lexical processing: A cross-linguistic perspective. In J. Coady & T. Huckin (Eds.), Second language vocabulary acquisition (pp. 35-52). Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Liu, I.M. (1983). Cueing function of fragments of Chinese characters in reading. Acta Psychologica Taiwanica, 25, 85-90.

Lukatela, G., Lukatela, K., & Turvey, M. T. (1993). Further evidence for the phonological constraints on visual lexical access: TOWED primes FROG. Perception & Psychophysics, 53, 461–466.

Muter, V. & K. Diethelm (2001). The contribution of phonological skills and letter knowledge to early reading development in a multilingual population. Language Learning, 51, 187–219.

Nation, P. (2015). Principles guiding vocabulary learning through extensive reading. Reading in a Foreign Language, 27(1), 136-145.

Neely, J. H. (1977). Semantic priming and retrieval from lexical memory: Roles of inhibitionless spreading activation and limited-capacity attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 106, 226-254.

Patterson, K.E., & Morton, J. (1985). From orthography to phonology: An attempt at an old interpretation. In K.E. Patterson, J.C. Marshall, & M. Coltheart (Eds.), Surface Dyslexia: Neuropsychological and Cognitive Studies of Phonological Reading (pp. 335-359). Hove, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Penfield, J. (1986). ESL literacy and the new refugees: Priorities and considerations. Adult Literacy and Basic Education, 10(1), 47-57.

Perea, M. & Rosa, E. (2002). The effects of associative and semantic priming in the lexical decision task. Psychological Research 66(3), 180-194.

Phillips, N.A., Segalowitz, N., O’Brien, I., & Yamasaki, N. (2004). Semantic priming in a first and second language: Evidence from response time variability and event-related brain potentials. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 17, 237-262.

Schoonbaert, S., Duyck, W., Brysbaert, M., & Hartsuiker, R.J. (2009) Semantic and translation priming from a first language to a second and back: Making sense of the findings. Memory & Cognition, 37, 569–586.

Segui, J., & Grainger, J. (1990). Priming word recognition with orthographic neighbors: Effects of relative prime-target frequency. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 16(1), 65-76.

Share, D. L., & Stanovich, K. E. (1995). Cognitive processes in early reading development: Accommodating individual differences into a model of acquisition. Issues in Education: Contributions from Educational Psychology, 1, 1-57.

Silverberg, S. & Samuel, A. (2004). The effect of age of second language acquisition on the representation and processing of second language words. Journal of Memory and Language, 51, 381-398.

Singhal, M. (1998). A comparison of L1 and L2 Reading: Cultural differences and schema. The Internet TESL Journal, 4(10). Available online at http://iteslj.org/Articles/Singhal-ReadingL1L2.html

Stanovich, K. E. & Siegel, L. (1994). Phenotypic performance profile of children with reading disabilities: A regression-based test of the phonological-core variable-difference model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86, 24-53.

Strauss, S.L. (2005). The linguistics, neurology, and politics of phonics: silent "E" speaks out. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2005.

Williams, C. (2012). Intensive English program effects on phonological/semantic word recognition. Asian EFL Journal, 64, 40-52.

Williams, C. (2014). Post-intensive instruction effects on L2 English lexical development. Asian EFL Journal, 16(4), 104-117.

Williams, C. (2015). Japanese L2 English word recognition processes: Decoding sound vs. shape. Asian ESP Journal, 11(2), 154-170.

Williams, C.H. (2010). Chinese literacy-learning strategy impact on English reading development: A case study of Taiwanese learners of English. Asian EFL Journal, 41, 3-23.

Williams, C.H. & Bever, T. (2010). Chinese character decoding: A semantic bias? Reading and Writing, 23(5), 589-605.