Exploring Lexical Bundles in Thai EFL Learners’ Writings

Main Article Content

Mathurin Leelasetakul


This paper explores the use of lexical bundles by Thai learners of English in writing, using the data from the Thai and the native speaker sub- corpora in the ICNALE corpus. Lexical bundles that are found in the two sub-corpora are compared in terms of types, frequencies, structures, and functions. Analysis and comparisons are made both between the Thai and the native speaker groups and within the Thai group, comparing three different levels of proficiency. The analysis reveals that Thai learners and native speakers of English differ in their production of lexical bundle types and tokens. The same trend is also observed in lexical bundles used by Thai learners of different proficiency levels.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Author Biography

Mathurin Leelasetakul

Mathurin Leelasetakul is currently a PhD candidate (ABD) at the Department of Applied Linguistics at the Pennsylvania State University. Her research interests include Corpus Linguistics, Second Language Acquisition, and English language learning and teaching in the context of Thailand.


Ädel, A., & Erman, B. (2012). Recurrent word combinations in academic writing by native and non-native speakers of English: A lexical bundles approach. English for Specific Purposes, 31, 81–92.

Appel, R. (2011). Lexical bundles in university EAP exam writing samples CAEL test essays. (Unpublished master thesis). Carleton University, Canada.

Biber, D. & Conrad, S. (1999). Lexical bundles in conversation and academic prose. In H. Hasselgard and S. Oksetjell (Eds.), Out of corpora: Studies in honor of Stig Iohansson. (pp. 181-190). Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., & Finegan, E. (1999). Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Essex: Pearson Education Limited.

Biber, D., Conrad, S., & Cortes, V. (2004). If you look at…: Lexical bundles in University Teaching and Textbooks. Applied Linguistics, 25, 371-405.

Biber, D., & Barbieri, F. (2007). Lexical bundles in university spoken and written registers. English for Specific Purposes, 26, 263-286.

Chen, Y. H., & Baker, P. (2010). Lexical bundles in l1 and l2 academic writing. Language Learning & Technology, 12(2), 30-49.

Cortes, V. (2004). Lexical bundles in published and student disciplinary writing: Examples from history and biology. English for Specific Purposes, 23, 397-423.

Hyland, K. (2008a). As can be seen: Lexical bundles and disciplinary variation. English for Specific Purposes, 27, 4-21.

Hyland, K. (2008b). Academic clusters: Text patterning in published and postgraduate writing. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 18, 41-62.

Jalali, H., Eslami Rasekh, A., & Tavangar Rizi, M. (2008). Lexical bundles and intradisciplinary variations: The case of applied linguistics. Iranian Journal of Language Studies, 2(4), 447-484.

Li, J., & Schmitt, N. (2009). The acquisition of lexical phrases in academic writing: A longitudinal case study. Journal of Second Language Writing, 18, 85–102.

Nattinger, J. R. and DeCarrico, J. S. (1992). Lexical Phrases and Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Pawley, A., & Syder, F. H. (1983). Two puzzles for linguistic theory: Native-like selection and native-like fluency. In J. C. Richards & R. W. Schmidt (Eds.), Language and Communication (pp. 191–226). London: Longman.

Römer, U. (2009) English in academia: Does nativeness matter? Anglistik, 20, 89-100.

Schmitt, N., & Carter, R. (2004). Formulaic sequences in action: An introduction. . In N. Schmitt (Ed.), Formulaic Sequences (pp. 1-22). Philadelphia : John Benjamins Publishing.

Wei, Y. & Lei, L. (2011). Lexical bundles in the academic writing of advanced chinese EFL learners. RELC, 42(2), 155–166.

Weinstein, M. (2011). Investigating the lexical bundle use of novice and upper-level writers within a university discipline. (Unpublished master thesis). Carleton University, Canada.

Wray, A. (2002). Formulaic Language and the Lexicon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.