Main Article Content

Arphat Tiaotrakul
Kanitin Thongngaen
Nonthawat Mahawan
Nitinan Boonkhan
Piyachet Lathong
Siraphop Kankaew
Tussana Jaruchart


The global crisis, COVID-19, induced disruption to routine instruction that impacted the academic life of higher education students. This study aimed to assess mental health status and study the factors affecting students’ mental health. The sample size was estimated using the Yamane formula (Yamane, 1973). Three hundred and sixty undergraduate students (ages 18-23 years) in the academic year 2022, were recruited using accidental sampling from the faculty of Education, Naresuan University. The Thai Mental Health Indicator (TMHI-15), with a value of validity (0.61) and reliability (0.83), was used to examine students’ mental health status. A set of mental health status-related factors questionnaire, with a value of validity (0.67-1.00) and reliability (0.90), was also used to survey factors involved in affecting students’ mental health status. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. The findings revealed that 56.4% of students were in poor mental health status. Academic self-efficacy, adaptability, social support, and studying environment were significant predictors for students’ mental health with 22% (R2 = .22, Adjust R2 = .20, F = 5.98, p < .05). A factor that influenced students’ mental health the most was self-efficacy, while social support and adaptability were the second and third factors that influenced students’ mental health. These factors could play a mediating role related to student’s mental health status during the COVID-19 outbreak.

Article Details

How to Cite
Tiaotrakul, A. ., Thongngaen, K. ., Mahawan, N. ., Boonkhan, N. ., Lathong, P. ., Kankaew, S. ., & Jaruchart, T. . (2024). THE MENTAL HEALTH STATUS AND RELATED FACTORS AFFECTING THE MENTAL HEALTH OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS DURING COVID-19 OUTBREAK. Journal of Education and Innovation, 26(1), 65–75. Retrieved from
Research Articles


Adlington, K., Easter, A., Galloway, H., & Howard, L. M. (2022). Mental health is neglected in maternal near miss research. British Medical Journal, 12, 1-10.

Agnew, M., Poole, H., & Khan, A. (2019). Fall break fallout: Exploring student perceptions of the impact of an autumn break on stress. Student Success, 10(3), 45-54.

Aristovnik, A., Kerzic, D., Ravselj, D., Tomazevic, N., & Umek, L. (2020). Impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on life of higher education students: A global perspective. Sustainability, 12(20), 1-34.

Bandura, A. (1994). Regulative function of perceived self-efficacy. In M. G. Rumsey, C. B. Walker, & J. H. Harris (Eds.), Personnel selection and classification (pp. 261–271). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. W H Freeman/Times Books/ Henry Holt & Co.

Bandura, A., Pastorelli, C., Barbaranelli, C., & Caprara, G. V. (1999). Self-efficacy pathways to childhood depression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76(2), 258–269.

Bertera, E. M. (2005). Mental health in U.S. adults: The role of positive social support and social negativity in personal relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 22(1), 33–48.

Bonnini, S., & Michela, B. (2022). Relationship between mental health and socio-economic, demographic and environmental factors in the COVID-19 lockdown period—a multivariate regression analysis. Mathematics, 10, 1-15.

Chandra, Y. (2020). Online education during COVID-19: Perception of academic stress and emotional intelligence coping strategies among college students. Asian Education and Development Studies, 10(2), 229-238.

Chao, M., Chen, X., Liu, T., Yang, H., & Hall, B. J. (2020). Psychological distress and state boredom during the COVID-19 outbreak in China: the role of meaning in life and media use. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 11, 1-7.

Chao, M., Xue, D., Liu, T., Yang, H., & Hall, B. J. (2020). Media use and acute psychological outcomes during COVID-19 outbreak in China. Journal of Anxiety Disorder, 74, 1-8.

Cohen, S. (1988). Psychosocial models of the role of social support in the etiology of physical disease. Health psychology: official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association, 7(3), 269–297.

Collie, R. J., Holliman, A. J., Andrew, J., & Martin, A. J. (2017). Adaptability, engagement and academic achievement at university. Educational Psychology, 37(5), 632–647.

Del Prette, Z. A. P., & Del Prette, A. (2009). Avaliação de habilidades sociais: bases conceituais, instrumentos e procedimentos. In A. Del Prette & Z. A. P. Del Prette (Orgs.), Psicologia das habilidades sociais: Diversidade teórica e suas implicações (pp. 187-229). Petrópolis: Vozes.

Duprey, E. B., McKee, L. G., O'Neal, C. W., Algoe, S. B., & Campos, B. (2020). Stressors, resources, and mental health among Latino adolescents: The role of gratitude. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 70, Article 101191.

Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. Annual Review of Psychology, 53(1), 109–132.

Fairbrother, K., & Warn, J. (2003). Workplace dimensions, stress and job satisfaction. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18(1), 8–21.

Farahbakhsh, S., Gholamrezaei, S., & Nikpay, I. (2007). The survey of students' mental health in relation to academic factors. The Quarterly Journal of Fundamentals of Mental Health, 8(33), 61-66.

Grotan, K., Sund, E. R., & Bjerkeset, O. (2019). Mental health, academic self-efficacy and study progress among college students – The shot study, Norway. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1-11.

Hayat, A. A., Shateri, K., Amini, M., & Shokrpour, N. (2020). Relationships between academic self-efficacy, learning-related emotions, and metacognitive learning strategies with academic performance in medical students: a structural equation model. BMC Medical Education, 20, 76.

Hofer, S. I., Nistor, N., & Scheibenzuber, C. (2021). Online teaching and learning in higher education: Lessons learned in crisis situations. Computers in Human Behavior, 121, 1-10.

Ingard, A., Karnjanapoomi, N., Sheoychitra, P. (2020). Undergraduate students’ anxiety during the Coronavirus disease epidemic in 2019. MUT Journal of Business Administration, 17(2), 94-113.

Khalil, M., Ghayas, S. Adil, A., & Niazi, S. (2021). Self-efficacy and mental health among university students: Mediating role of assertiveness. Rawal Medical Journal, 46(2), 416-419.

Li, H., & Mei, J. R. (2002). Types and characteristics of college campus pressure. Psychology Science, 25, 398–401.

Li, P., Yang, J., Zhou, Z., Zhao, Z., & Liu, T. (2022). The influence of college students’ academic stressors on mental health during COVID-19: The mediating effect of social support, social well-being, and self-identity. Frontier in Public Health, 1-13.

Mongkol, A., Huttapanom, W., Chetchotisakd, P., Chalookul, W., Punyoyai, L., & Suvanashiep, S. (2001). The Study to Develop Thai Mental Health Indicator. Journal of the Psychiatric Association of Thailand, 46(3), 209–225.

Mongkol, A., Vongpiromsan, Y., Tangseree, T., Huttapanom, W., Romsai, P., & Chutha, W. (2013). The Development and Testing of Thai Mental Health Indicator Version 2007. Journal of the Psychiatric Association of Thailand, 54(3), 299–316.

Pinedo, R., Vicario-Molina, I., Ortega, E. G., & Picos, A. P. (2021). Factors related to mental health during the covid-19 lockdown in Spain. Frontier in Psychology, 12, 1-12.

Rawson, H. E., Bloomer, K., & Kendall, A. (1994). Stress, anxiety, depression, and physical illness in college students. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 155(3), 321-330.

Sadry, A. M., Habibi, M. N., & Aslamyar, T. (2022). The relationship between mental health and academic achievement of students of faculty of education at Kunduz university. Sprin Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, 1(10), 9-17.

Sahao, F. T., & Kienen, N. (2021). University student adaptation and mental health: a systematic review of literature. Psicologia Escolar e Educacional, 25, 1-13.

Salari, N., Hosseinian-Far, A., Jalali, R., Vaisi-Raygani, A., Rasoulpoor, S., Mohammadi, M., Rasoulpoor, S., Khaledi-Paveh, B. (2020). Prevalence of stress, anxiety, depression among the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Global Health, 16(1), 57. DOI: 10.1186/s12992-020-00589-w

Schleicher, A. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 on education: Insights from Education at a Glance 2020. Retrieved November 17, 2022, from

Son, C., Hegde, S., Smith, A., Wang, X., & Sasangohar, F. (2020). Effects of COVID-19 on college students' mental health in the United States: Interview survey study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 22(9), 1-14.

Stockinger, K., Rinas, R., & Daumiller, M. (2021). Student adaptability, emotions, and achievement: Navigating new academic terrains in global crisis. Learning and Individual Differences, 90, 1-10.

Tahmassian, K., & Jalali Moghadam, N. (2011). Relationship between self-efficacy and symptoms of anxiety, depression, worry and social avoidance in a normal sample of students. Iranian journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 5(2), 91–98.

Tiaotrakul, A., Phannong, R., Tapputa, K., & Singthong, K. (2021). The relationship of physical activities and psychological well-being in pre-service teachers in Faculty of Education Naresuan University. Journal of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 47(1), 161-174.

Uchino, B. N., Holt-Lunstad, J., Uno, D., & Flinders, J. B. (2001). Heterogeneity in the social networks of young and older adults: prediction of mental health and cardiovascular reactivity during acute stress. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 24(4), 361–382.

Vaughn, A. A., Drake Jr, R. R., & Haydock, S. (2016). College student mental health and quality of workplace relationships. Journal of American College Health, 64(1), 26–37.

Vermeiren, S., Duchatelet, D., & Gijbels, D. (2022). Assessing students’ self-efficacy for negotiating during a role-play simulation of political decision-making: Taking student characteristics and simulation features into account. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 72, 1-11.

Videbeck, S. L. (2014). Psychiatric-mental health nursing (6th ed.). Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

World Health Organization (WHO). (2022). Mental health: strengthening our response. Retrieved November 17, 2022, from

Xiong, J., Lipsitz, O., Nasri, F., Lui, L. M. W., Gill, H., Phan, L., Chen-Li, D., Iacobucci, M., Ho, R., Majeed, A., McIntyre, R. S. (2020). Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mental health in the general population: A systematic review. J Affect Disord., 277, 55-64. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2020.08.001

Yamane, T. (1973). Statistics: An Introductory Analysis (3rd ed.). New York, Harper and Row Publication.

Yeom, Y. O., Hong, Y. P., Kim, K. M., Lee, Y. L., & Lim, M. H. (2020). The relationships between academic burnout, mental health, parental achievement pressure, and academic demand in high school students. Stress, 28, 61-67.

Zhai, Y., & Du, X. (2020). Addressing collegiate mental health amid COVID-19 pandemic. Psychiatry Research, 288, 1-2.

Zhang, C. Q., Zhang, R., Lu, Y., Liu, H., Kong, S., Baker, J. S., & Zhang, H. (2021). Occupational stressors, mental health, and sleep difficulty among nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic: The mediating roles of cognitive fusion and cognitive reappraisal. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 19, 64–71.

Zhang, L., Che, W. B., Li, B., & Zhang, X. D. (2006). An epidemiological survey on the psychological stress status for students in 13 Chinese colleges. Chinese Journal of Epidemiology, 27(5), 387–391.

Zhong, B., Huang, Y., & Liu, Q. (2021). Mental health toll from the coronavirus: Social media usage reveals Wuhan residents’ depression and secondary trauma in the COVID-19 outbreak. Computer in Human Behavior, 114, 1-10.