Guidelines for Online PLC with a Lesson Study Approach to Promote STEM Education

Main Article Content

Suthida Kareemee
Praweenya Suwannatthachote
Chatree Faikhamta


This research aims to provide guidelines for the development of online learning communities for educational institutions in order to promote STEM education. The information presented is based on the study of STEM instruction and a professional learning community (PLC) of 17 primary school teachers from 6 private schools in Thailand. In each school, semi-structured interviews were conducted with teachers responsible for science, mathematics and technology instruction. Technology refers to computer, design and technology courses. In addition, there were 9 expert interviews, including STEM, computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) and online learning communities, and lesson study concepts. The results of qualitative analysis found that three points about the development of an online PLC in schools to promote STEM teaching should be considered: 1. Individual means a member who will participate in an online PLC, including support staff such as school administrators and technical staff. 2. Information technology refers to a system or tools that can be used as a medium for exchanging knowledge gained from learning among members. 3. Content refers to the structuring of the content displayed in the online learning community and the scheduling of members' activities. Therefore, all these must be considered in the planning of online PLC development that allows members to interact and communicate through the use of CSCL tools, which will lead to the exchange of learning and help among members such as analyzing contents that can be used to link subjects or considering a theme used for STEM instructional design.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kareemee, S., Suwannatthachote, P., & Faikhamta, C. (2019). Guidelines for Online PLC with a Lesson Study Approach to Promote STEM Education. The Journal of Behavioral Science, 14(3), 32-48. Retrieved from
Research Articles


Angeletou, S., Rowe, M., & Alani, H. (2011). Modelling and analysis of user behaviour in online communities. In L. Aroyo, C. Welty, H. Alani, J. Taylor, A. Bernstein, L. Kagal, N.Noy, & E. Blomqvist (Eds.). Paper presented at 10th International Semantic Web Conference Bonn, Germany, October 23-27 (pp.35-50). Heidelberg: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-25073-6_3
Aregamalage, S. V. P., Hong, S., & Fang, H. (2017). STEM Teacher Education and Professional Development and Training: Challenges and Trends. American Journal of Applied Psychology, 6(5), 93-97. doi:10.11648/j.ajap.20170605.12
Battersby, S. L., & Verdi, B. (2015). The culture of professional learning communities and connections to improve teacher efficacy and support student learning. Arts Education Policy Review, 116(1), 22-29. doi:10.1080/10632913.2015.970096
Caena, F. (2011). Education and training 2020 thematic working group ‘professional development of teachers’: Literature review quality in teachers’ continuing professional development. Retrieved from
Cheng, P. L. (2017). Professional Learning Community (PLC): Technology integration at a title I elementary school (Doctoral dissertation). Education Department, San Jose State University. doi: 10.31979/etd.58wj-dk5q
Coenders, F., & Verhoef, N. (2019). Lesson study: Professional Development (PD) for beginning and experienced teachers. Professional Development in Education, 45(2), 217-230. doi: 10.1080/19415257.2018.1430050
Damjanovic, V., & Blank, J. (2018). Building a professional learning community: Teachers’ documentation of and reflections on preschoolers’ work. Early Childhood Education Journal, 46(5), 567-575. doi: 10.1007/s10643-017-0888-0
Dehdary, N. (2017). A look into a professional learning community. Journal of Language Teaching & Research, 8(4), 645-654. doi: 10.17507/jltr.0804.02
Dixon, F. A., Yssel, N., McConnell, J. M., & Hardin, T. (2014). differentiated instruction, professional development, and teacher efficacy. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 37(2), 111-127. doi: 10.1177/0162353214529042
Draper, D. P. (2014). Guiding the work of professional learning communities: Perspectives for school leaders (Doctoral dissertation). Portland State University.
Easton, L. B. (2012). Principles of design energize learning communities: Practical tips put the emphasis on "Learning". Journal of Staff Development, 33(4), 49-54.
EdSurge. (2014). How teachers are learning:professional development remix. Retrieved from
Feffer, J. F. (2015). Teacher learning within professional learning communities (Doctoral dissertation). California State University.
Finkelstien, M. A. (2009). Intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivational orientations and the volunteer process. Personality and Individual Differences, 46(5), 653-658. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2009.01.010
Galletta, A. (2012). Mastering the Semi-Structured Interview and Beyond : From Research Design to Analysis and Publication. NY: NYU Press.
Garrison, D. R. (2007). Online community of inquiry review: Social, cognitive, and teaching presence issues. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 11(1), 61-72. doi:10.24059/olj.v11i1.1737
Hird, M., Larson, R., Okubo, Y., & Uchino, K. (2014). Lesson study and lesson sharing: An appealing marriage. Creative Education, 5(10), 769-779. doi:10.4236/ce.2014.510090
Islam, M. T. (2016). Teacher development approaches and strategies in BRAC nobodhara school. International Journal of Learning & Development, 6(1), 25-41. doi:10.5296/ ijld.v6i1.8846
Jamjuree, D. (2017). Teacher training and development in Thailand. Journal of Research and Curriculum Development, 7(2), 7-19.
Järvelä, S., Kirschner, P. A., Panadero, E., Malmberg, J., Phielix, C., Jaspers, J., . . . Järvenoja, H. (2015). Enhancing socially shared regulation in collaborative learning groups: designing for CSCL regulation tools. Educational Technology Research and Development, 63(1), 125-142. doi:10.1007/s11423-014-9358-1
Jennifer, M. T. (2016). Examining teachers' experiences in a professional learning community focused on integrating technology into literacy instruction (Doctoral dissertation), Iowa State University. Retrieved from htps://
Jeong, H., & Hmelo-Silver, C. E. (2016). Seven affordances of computer-supported collaborative learning: How to support collaborative learning? How can technologies help? Educational Psychologist, 51(2), 247-265. doi: 10.1080/00461520.2016.1158654
Kenan Foundation Asia. (2019). Think transforming thai education is impossible? Think again. Retrieved from
Kham-o-part, P. (2018). The model of teachers’ professional learning community for the non-formal and informal educational center in Thailand’s upper northern region. Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences Studies, 18(2), 444-462.
Kyndt, E., Gijbels, D., Grosemans, I., & Donche, V. (2016). Teachers’ everyday professional development: Mapping informal learning activities, antecedents, and learning outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 86(4), 1111-1150. doi:10.3102/0034654315627864
Lewis, C. (2015). What is improvement science? Do we need it in education? Educational Researcher, 44(1), 54-61. doi:10.3102/0013189x15570388
Lewis, C. C. (2012). How do Japanese teachers improve their instruction? Synergies of lesson study at the school, district and national levels, Vol. 2016 (p. 21). Retrieved from webpage/dbasse_084385.pdf
Lewis, C. C., Perry, R. R., Friedkin, S., & Roth, J. R. (2012). Improving teaching does improve teachers: Evidence from lesson study. Journal of Teacher Education, 63(5), 368-375.
Mouter, N., & Vonk Noordegraaf, D. (2012). Intercoder reliability for qualitative research: You win some, but do you lose some as well? Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 12th TRAIL Congress, 30-31 October 2012, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
National Commission on Teaching & America’s Future. (2010). STEM teacher in professional learning communities: A knowledge synthesis. Retrieved from
National Educational Welfare Board. (2008). Developing a code of behaviour: Guidelines for schools. Retrieved from
Office of Basic Education Commission (OBEC), Faculty of economics Thammasat University, & UNICEF Thailand. (2014). Public Expenditure Tracking Survey (PETS) on the 15-year free education program: Kingdom of Thailand. Retrieved from
Oh Song, K., & Choi, J. (2017). Structural analysis of factors that influence professional learning communities in Korean elementary schools. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 10(1), 1-9. doi: 10.26822/iejee.2017131882
Owen, S. (2014). Teacher professional learning communities: Going beyond contrived collegiality toward challenging debate and collegial learning and professional growth. Australian Journal of Adult Learning, 54(2), 54-77.
Park, N., & Yang, A. (2012). Online environmental community members’ intention to participate in environmental activities: An application of the theory of planned behavior in the Chinese context. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(4), 1298-1306. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2012.02.013
Patton, K., Parker, M., & Tannehill, D. (2015). Helping teachers help themselves: Professional development that makes a difference. NASSP Bulletin, 99(1), 26-42. doi:10.1177/0192636515576040
Poovey, R. R. (2017). Elementary teacher reflection in professional learning communities and teacher learning. In D. A. Rucinski (Ed.), Real world professional learning communities: Their use and effects (pp. 39-54). London: Rowman & Littlefield.
Popp, J. S., & Goldman, S. R. (2016). Knowledge building in teacher professional learning communities: Focus of meeting matters. Teaching and Teacher Education, 59, 347-359. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2016.06.007
Rinke, C. R., Gladstone-Brown, W., Kinlaw, C. R., & Cappiello, J. (2016). Characterizing STEM teacher education: Affordances and constraints of explicit STEM preparation for elementary teachers. School Science and Mathematics, 116(6), 300-309. doi:10.1111/ssm.12185
Shabani, K. (2016). Applications of Vygotsky’s sociocultural approach for teachers’ professional development. Cogent Education, 3(1), 1252177.
Shernoff, D. J., Sinha, S., Bressler, D. M., & Ginsburg, L. (2017). Assessing teacher education and professional development needs for the implementation of integrated approaches to STEM education. International Journal of STEM Education, 4(1), 13.
Shúilleabháin, A. N. (2015). Lesson study as a form of in-school professional development: Case studies in two post-primary schools. Retrieved from
Slavit, D., Nelson, T. H., & Lesseig, K. (2016). The teachers’ role in developing, opening, and nurturing an inclusive STEM-focused school. International Journal of STEM Education. Retrieved from
Sompong, S., Erawan, P., & Dharm-tad-sa-na-non, S. (2015). The development of professional learning community in primary schools. Academic Journals: Educational Research and Reviews, 10(21), 2789-2796. doi: 10.5897/ERR2015.2343
Srikoom, W., Hanuscin, D. L., & Faikhamta, C. (2017). Perceptions of in-service teachers toward teaching STEM in Thailand. Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, 18(2). Retrieved from
Tam, A. C. F. (2015). The role of a professional learning community in teacher change: A perspective from beliefs and practices. Teachers and Teaching, 21(1), 22-43.
Tantranont, N. (2009). Continuing professional development for teachers in Thailand. (Doctoral dissertation). University of Warwick, England. Retrieved from
Thompson, D. (2015). An analysis of the perceived impact of lesson study on improving secondary school STEM teacher effectiveness (Doctoral dissertation). University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida. Retrieved from
Trust, T., & Horrocks, B. (2017). “I never feel alone in my classroom”: Teacher professional growth within a blended community of practice. Professional Development in Education, 43(4), 645-665. doi: 10.1080/19415257.2016.1233507
Tsiotakis, P., & Jimoyiannis, A. (2016). Critical factors towards analysing teachers' presence in on-line learning communities. The Internet and Higher Education, 28(January, 2016), 45-58. doi: 10.1016/j.iheduc.2015.09.002
Turner, C. J. (2015). Impact of professional learning community design on teacher instruction (Doctoral dissertation), University of Arkansas, USA.
Vu, P., Cao, V., Vu, L., & Cepero, J. (2014). Factors driving learner success in online professional development. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 15(3), 20. doi: 10.19173/irrodl.v15i3.1714
Wahono, B., & Chang, C.-Y. (2019). Assessing teacher’s Attitude, Knowledge, and Application (AKA) on STEM: An effort to foster the sustainable development of STEM education. Sustainability, 11(4), 950. doi: 10.3390/su11040950
Watson, C. (2014). Effective professional learning communities? The possibilities for teachers as agents of change in schools. British Educational Research Journal, 40(1), 18-29. doi: 10.1002/berj.3025