Pharmacist’s Interaction Behavior and Consumer Loyalty: The Mediating Role of Consumer Trust and Satisfaction

Main Article Content

Luu Tien Dung


The study aimed to examine a causal relationship of pharmacist’s interaction behavior and consumer loyalty with the mediating role of consumer trust and satisfaction in pharmacies. The study was based on a convenient sample of 327 pharmacy consumers in Ho Chi Minh City and Dong Nai province of Vietnam. Data were analyzed using a structural equation model (SEM). The results indicated that the model fitted well with the empirical data, considering the goodness of fit measures: c2 = 48.44 (df = 312), c2/df = 1.54, GFI = 0.90, TLI = 0.95, CFI =0.96, and RMESA = 0.04. Results of mediation effects were significant, revealing that consumer trust and satisfaction mediated the relationship between pharmacist behavior and pharmacies consumer loyalty (β = .51, p < .001; β = .50, p < .001). Additionally, perceived pharmacist’s listening was statistically significant to consumer satisfaction (β = .10, p < .05) and trust (β = .15, p < .01); perceived pharmacist’s advising impacts consumer satisfaction (β = .26, p < .01) and was statistically significant to consumer trust (β = .64, p < .001); perceived pharmacist’s professional competence was associated significantly with consumer satisfaction
(β = .15, p < .001) and trust (β = .16, p < .001). These findings offer implications regarding how pharmacist’s behavior can enhance loyalty behavior through consumer trust and satisfaction in pharmacies. Pharmacies should focus on training by improving the relationship of pharmacists with consumers, as the key dimension of the service quality in driving the pharmacy loyalty.

Article Details

How to Cite
Dung, L. T. (2019). Pharmacist’s Interaction Behavior and Consumer Loyalty: The Mediating Role of Consumer Trust and Satisfaction. The Journal of Behavioral Science, 14(3), 1-13. Retrieved from
Research Articles


Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 50(2), 179-211.
Al Dmour, H., & Sweidan, G. (2013). The Effect of Relationship Marketing on Consumer Loyalty in the Jordanian Pharmaceutical Industry. Economic Horizons, 33(123), 9-62. doi: 10.12816/0008614
Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411-423.
Angelino, A., Khanh, D., An Ha, N., & Pham, T. (2017). Pharmaceutical industry in Vietnam: Sluggish sector in a growing market. International journal of environmental research and public health, 14(9), 976-993. doi:10.3390/ijerph14090976
Antunes, L. P., Gomes, J. J., & Cavaco, A. M. (2015). How pharmacist-patient communication determines pharmacy loyalty? Modeling relevant factors. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 11(4), 560-570. doi: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2014.11.003
Athavale, A. S., Banahan, III, B. F., Bentley, J. P., & West-Strum, D. S. (2015). Antecedents and consequences of pharmacy loyalty behavior. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, 9(1), 36-55. doi: 10.1108/IJPHM-02-2013-0003
Ben Naoui, F., & Zaiem, I. (2010). The impact of relationship quality on client's loyalty: An application in the parapharmaceutical industry. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, 4(2), 137-156.
doi: 10.1108/17506121011059759
Bentler, P. M., & Chou, C.-P. (1987). Practical issues in structural modeling. Sociological Methods & Research, 16(1), 78-117.
Castaldo, S., Grosso, M., Mallarini, E., & Rindone, M. (2016). The missing path to gain consumers loyalty in pharmacy retail: The role of the store in developing satisfaction and trust. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 12(5), 699-712.
doi: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2015.10.001
Cavaco, A. M., & Romano, J. (2010). Exploring pharmacists’ communication with consumers through screening services. Patient education and counseling, 80(3), 377-383.
doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2010.06.028
Cavaye, D., Lehnbom, E. C., Laba, T.-L., El-Boustani, E., Joshi, R., & Webster, R. (2018). Considering pharmacy workflow in the context of Australian community pharmacy: A pilot time and motion study. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 14(12), 1157-1162. doi: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2018.01.003
Chaudhuri, A., & Holbrook, M. B. (2001). The chain of effects from brand trust and brand affect to brand performance: the role of brand loyalty. Journal of Marketing, 65(2),
81-93. doi: 10.1509/jmkg.
Chin, W.C. & Todd, P.A. (1995). On the Use, Usefulness and Ease of Use of Structural Equation Modelling in MIS Research: A Note of Caution. MIS Quarterly, 19, 237-246.
Cho, J. E., & Hu, H. (2009). The effect of service quality on trust and commitment varying across generations. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 33(4), 468-476.
doi: 10.1111/j.1470-6431.2009.00777.x
Dwyer, F. R., & Tanner, J. F. (2002). Business marketing: Connecting strategy, relationships, and learning. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Eisingerich, A. B., & Bell, S. J. (2007). Maintaining customer relationships in high credence services. Journal of Services Marketing, 21(4), 253-262.
doi: 10.1108/08876040710758559
General Statistics Office of Vietnam. (2018). Statistical Yearbook of Vietnam 2017. Ha Noi: Statistics Publishing House.
Hanna, L. A., & Hughes, C. M. (2011). Public's views on making decisions about over-the-counter medication and their attitudes towards evidence of effectiveness: a cross-sectional questionnaire study. Patient Education and Counseling, 83(3), 345-351.
doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2011.02.016
Hair, J., Black, W., Babin, B., & Anderson, R. (2010). Multivariate data analysis. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Jose, J., Al Shukili, M. N., & Jimmy, B. (2015). Public’s perception and satisfaction on the roles and services provided by pharmacists–Cross sectional survey in Sultanate of Oman. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 23(6), 635-641.
doi: 10.1016/j.jsps.2015.02.003
Kansanaho, H., Isonen-Sjölund, N., Pietilä, K., Airaksinen, M., & Isonen, T. (2002). Patient counseling profile in a Finnish pharmacy. Patient Education and Counseling, 47(1), 77-82. doi: 10.1016/S0738-3991(01)00180-X
Kettinger, W. J., Lee, C. C., & Lee, S. (1995). Global Measures of Information Service Quality: A Cross‐National Study. Decision Sciences, 26(5), 569-588.
Kevrekidis, D. P., Minarikova, D., Markos, A., Malovecka, I., & Minarik, P. (2018). Community pharmacy consumer segmentation based on factors influencing their selection of pharmacy and over-the-counter medicines. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 26(1), 33-43. doi: 10.1016/j.jsps.2017.11.002
Kim, D. J., Ferrin, D. L., & Rao, H. R. (2009). Trust and satisfaction, two stepping stones for successful e-commerce relationships: A longitudinal exploration. Information Systems Research, 20(2), 237-257. doi: 10.1287/isre.1080.0188
Kumar, V. & Shah, D. (2004). Building and sustaining profitable customer loyalty for the 21st century. Journal of Retailing, 80(4), 317-329. doi: 10.1016/j.jretai.2004.10.007
Lostakova, H., & Horakova, V. (2014). Usefulness of tools to enhance retention and loyalty in purchasing OTC drugs from the perspective of clients of B&M Pharmacies. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 150, 576-589. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.09.077
MacCallum, R. C., Browne, M. W., & Sugawara, H. M. (1996). Power analysis and determination of sample size for covariance structure modeling. Psychological Methods, 1(2), 130-149.
Mancilla, D., & Biedermann, S. (2009). Health information privacy: why trust matters. The Health Care Manager, 28(1), 71-74. doi: 10.1097/HCM.0b013e318196de6c
Mardanov, I. T., & Ricks, J. (2013). Pharmacist professionalism, helpfulness, and consumer behavior linkage. Journal of Medical Marketing, 13(4), 221-230.
doi: 10.1177/1745790413510237
Martin, S. S., Gutierrez, J., & Camarero, C. (2004). Trust as the key to relational commitment. Journal of Relationship Marketing, 3(1), 53-77. doi: 10.1300/J366v03n01_04
Mesquita, A. R., Lyra Jr, D. P., Brito, G. C., Balisa-Rocha, B. J., Aguiar, P. M., & de Almeida Neto, A. C. (2010). Developing communication skills in the pharmacy: a systematic review of the use of simulated patient methods. Patient Education and Counseling, 78(2), 143-148. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2009.07.012
Moles, R. J., & Stehlik, P. (2015). Pharmacy practice in Australia. The Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 68(5), 418-426. doi:10.4212/cjhp.v68i5.1492
Nitadpakorn, S., Farris, K. B., & Kittisopee, T. (2017). Factors affecting pharmacy engagement and pharmacy consumer devotion in community pharmacy: A structural equation modeling approach. Pharmacy Practice, 15(3), 1-8.
doi: 10.18549/pharmpract.2017.03.999
Patterson, J. A., Holdford, D. A., & Harpe, S. E. (2019). Patient preferences for objective quality metrics during community pharmacy selection: A discrete choice experiment. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 15(6), 641-649. doi: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2018.08.002
Patterson, B. J., Doucette, W. R., Urmie, J. M., & McDonough, R. P. (2013). Exploring relationships among pharmacy service use, patronage motives, and patient satisfaction. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, 53(4), 382-389.
Perepelkin, J., & Di Zhang, D. (2011). Brand personality and consumer trust in community pharmacies. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, 5(3), 175-193. doi: 10.1108/17506121111172194
Rabbanee, F. K., Burford, O., & Ramaseshan, B. (2015). Does employee performance affect consumer loyalty in pharmacy services? Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 25(6), 725-743. doi: 10.1108/JSTP-06-2014-0126
Rahmani, Z., Ranjbar, M., & Gara, A. A. N. (2017). The study of the relationship between value creation and consumer loyalty with the role of trust moderation and consumer satisfaction in Sari hospitals. Electronic Physician, 9(6), 4474. doi: 10.19082/4474
Ricks, J., & Mardanov, I. (2012). The effect of pharmacists on drug purchasing behavior of price-sensitive consumers. Journal of Medical Marketing, 12(3), 177-187.
doi: 10.1177/1745790412445799
Segars, A. & Grover, V. (1993). Re-Examining Perceived Ease of Use and Usefulness: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis. MIS Quarterly, 17, 517-525.
Sichtmann, C. (2007) An Analysis of Antecedents and Consequences of Trust in a Corporate Brand. European Journal of Marketing, 41, 999-1015.
doi: 10.1108/03090560710773318
Singh Gaur, S., Xu, Y., Quazi, A., & Nandi, S. (2011). Relational impact of service providers' interaction behavior in healthcare. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 21(1), 67-87. doi: 10.1108/09604521111100252
Tabachnick, B. G., Fidell, L. S., & Ullman, J. B. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (Vol. 5). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Taylor, S.A., Sharland, A., Cronin, J.J. & Bullard, W. (1993). Recreational Service Quality in the International Setting. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 4, 68-86.
Vlachos, P. A., Tsamakos, A., Vrechopoulos, A. P., & Avramidis, P. K. (2009). Corporate social responsibility: attributions, loyalty, and the mediating role of trust. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 37(2), 170-180. doi: 10.1007/s11747-008-0117-x
Zeithaml, V. A. (2000). Service quality, profitability, and the economic worth of consumers: what we know and what we need to learn. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28(1), 67-85. doi: 10.1177/0092070300281007