Examining the Impact of Community-Based Behavioral Drug Treatment: A Case Study from the Philippines

Main Article Content

Mendiola Teng Calleja
Rosanne M Jocson
Avegale C Acosta
Marie Therese W Ocampo
Donald Jay M Bertulfo
Ma. Regina M Hechanova


Researches in the fields of psychology, medicine, health, and social work, indicate varying effects of demographic characteristics on the effectiveness of community-based behavioral drug treatment (CBDT) programs. This study evaluates the overall effectiveness of Katatagan Kontra Droga sa Komunidad (KKDK, Resilience Against Drugs in the Community), an evidence-informed and culturally adapted CBDT program implemented in the Philippines to address the issue of substance use as an addictive behavior. It also determines whether the program had differential impacts across age, gender and educational attainment. Pre-treatment surveys were administered to 355 CBDT program participants. Out of this, 203 were able to complete the intervention and accomplish the post-treatment survey. Outcome measures covered in the survey include substance use dependence behaviors, coping behavior, life skills, family support, family functioning and wellbeing. Findings revealed significantly better post-test outcome measures. Overall, analyses using mixed ANOVAs indicated that changes in outcome scores did not vary according to age gender, and educational attainment. There was one significant interaction effect of educational attainment and time on well-being, with elementary and high school graduates showing larger improvements in well-being from pre to post-test compared with post-high school graduates. Implications of the findings include further evidence on the overall effectiveness of the CBDT program (i.e. KKDK) in lowering substance use behaviors and enhancing life skills, coping behaviors, family support, family functioning and wellbeing of low to mild risk drug users across gender, age and educational attainment.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Calleja, M. T., Jocson, R. M., Acosta, A. C., Ocampo, M. T. W., Bertulfo, D. J. M., & Hechanova, M. R. M. (2020). Examining the Impact of Community-Based Behavioral Drug Treatment: A Case Study from the Philippines. The Journal of Behavioral Science, 15(2), 1–15. Retrieved from https://so06.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/IJBS/article/view/219105
Research Articles


Beck, A. T. (1970). Cognitive therapy: Nature and relation to behavioral therapy. Behavior Therapy, 1(2), 184-200. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894(70)80030-2

Becona, E. (2018). Brain disease or biopsychosocial model in addiction? Remembering the Vietnam Veteran Study. Psicothema, 30(3), 270-275. https://doi:10.7334/psicothema2017.303

Binder, M. (2014). Subjective well-being capabilities: Bridging the gap between the capability approach and subjective well-being research. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15(5), 1197-1217. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-013-9471-6

Burns, A. R., Hussong, A. M., Solis, J. M., Curran, P. J., McGinley, J. S., Bauer, D. J., Chassin, L., & Zucker, R. A. (2017). Examining cohort effects in developmental trajectories of substance use. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 4(5), 621-631. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025416651734

Cepeda, M. (2016, September 22). DDB wants law institutionalizing community-based drug treatment. Rappler. https://www.rappler.com/nation/147020-ddb-law-institutionalize-community-based-drug-rehabilitation

Collins, S. E., Clifasefi, S. L., Stanton, J., The LEAP Advisory Board, Straits, K. J. E., Gil-Kashiwabara, E., Rodriguez Espinosa, P., Nicasio, A. V., Andrasik, M. P., Hawes, S. M., Miller, K. A., Nelson, L. A., Orfaly, V. E., Duran, B. M., & Wallerstein, N. (2018). Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR): Towards equitable involvement of community in psychology research. American Psychologist, 73(7), 884‐898. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/amp0000167

Curtis, A., Coomber, K., Droste, N., Hyder, S., Palmer, D., Miller, P. G. (2017). Effectiveness of community‐based interventions for reducing alcohol‐related harm in two metropolitan and two regional sites in Victoria, Australia. Drug Alcohol Rev, 36(3), 359‐368. https://doi.org/10.1111/dar.12501

Dangerous Drug Board. (2016, December 22). Community based treatment and rehabilitation resources. https://www.ddb.gov.ph/sidebar/301-community-based-treatment-and-rehabilitation-resources

De Haan, K. L. B., Hafekost, J., Lawrence, J., Sawyer, M. G., Zubrick, S. R. (2015). Reliability and validity of a short version of the general functioning subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device. Family Process, 54(1), 116-123. https://doi.org/10.1111/famp.12113

Evans, E., Li, L., Grella, C., Brecht, M. L., & Hser, Y. I. (2013). Developmental timing of first drug treatment and 10-year patterns of drug use. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 44(3), 271-279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2012.07.012

Fattore, L., & Melis, M. (2016). Editorial: Exploring gender and sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol: From drug addiction to impulse control disorders. Psychiatry, 7(19), 1-3. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2016.00019

Foster, K. T., Li, N., McClure, E. A., Sonne, S. C., & Gray, K. M. (2016). Gender differences in internalizing symptoms and suicide risk among men and women seeking treatment for cannabis use disorder from late adolescence to middle adulthood. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 66(12), 16-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2016.01.012

Gfroerer, J., Penne, M., Pemberton, M., & Folsom, R., (2003). Substance abuse treatment need among older adults in 2020: the impact of the aging baby-boom cohort. Drug Alcohol Dependence, 69(2), 127-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0376-8716(02)00307-1

Giesbrecht, N., Haydon, E. (2009). Community-based interventions and alcohol, tobacco and other drugs: Foci, outcomes and implications. Drug and Alcohol Review, 25(6), 633-46. https://doi.org/10.1080/09595230600944594.

Graham, J. W. (2009). Missing data analysis: Making it work in the real world. Annual Review of Psychology, 60(1), 549–576. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085530

Greenfield, S. F., Trucco, E.M., McHugh, R.K., Lincoln, M., & Gallop, R.J. (2007). The Women's Recovery Group Study: Stage I trial of women-focused group therapy for substance use disorders versus mixed-gender group drug counseling. Drug Alcohol Dependence, 90(1), 39-47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2007.02.009

Griffiths, M. (2005). A ‘components’ model of addiction within a biopsychosocial framework. Journal of Substance Use, 10(4), 191–197. https://doi.org/10.1080/14659890500114359

Hechanova, M. R., Alianan, A., Calleja, M., Melgar, I., Acosta, A., Villasanta, A., Yusay, C., Ang, A., Flores, J., Canoy, N., Espina, E., Gomez, G., Samonte-Hinckley, E., Tuliao, A., Cue, M. (2018). The Development of a community-based drug intervention for Filipino drug users. Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology, 12(12), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1017/prp.2017.23

Hechanova, M. R., Alianan, A., Calleja, M., Acosta, A., Villasanta, A., Yusay, C. (2019). Evaluation of the training and pilot implementation of Katatagan Kontra Droga sa Komunidad. Philippine Journal of Psychology, 52(1), 65-102. https://www.pap.org.ph/sites/default/files/upload/hechanova_et_al_june_2019.pdf

Psychological Association of the Philippines. (2017). Katatagan Kontra Droga sa Komunidad resilience against drugs: A community-based drug treatment program facilitator’s manual. Psychological Association of the Philippines.

Psychological Association of the Philippines. (2019). Katatagan Kontra Droga sa Komunidad resilience against drugs: A community-based drug treatment program facilitator’s manual 3rd ed. Psychological Association of the Philippines.

Litman, G. K., Stapleton, J., Oppenheim, A. N., Peleg, M., & Jackson, P. (1984). The relationship between coping behaviours, their effectiveness and alcoholism relapse and survival. British Journal of Addiction, 79(3), 283–291. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.1984.tb00276.x

Magill, M., & Ray, L. (2009). Cognitive behavioural treatment with adult alcohol and illicit drug users: A meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 70(4), 516–527. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsad.2009.70.516

Miller, W. R. & Rollnick, S. (2012). Motivational interviewing: Preparing people for change. Guilford Press.

Niv, N., & Hser, Y. (2007). Women-only and mixed-gender drug abuse treatment programs: Service needs, utilization and outcomes. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 87(2-3), 194-201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2006.08.017

O’Shea, A., & Salzer, M. S. (2019). Examining the relationship between educational attainment and recovery of adults with serious mental illnesses. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 42(1), 79-87. https://doi.org/10.1037/prj0000328

Patrick, M. E., Wightman, P., Schoeni, R. F., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2012). Socioeconomic status and substance use among young adults: A comparison across constructs and drugs. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 73(5), 772-782. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsad.2012.73.772

Possick, C., & Itzick, M. (2018). Women’s experience of drug abuse treatment in a mixed-gender therapeutic community. Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work, 33(4), 493-508. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886109918766674

Ramo, D. E., & Brown, S. A. (2008). Class of substance abuse relapse situations: A comparison of adolescents and adults. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 22(3), 372-379. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-164X.22.3.372

Robles, E., Maynard, B., Salas-Wright, C., & Todic, J. (2018). Culturally-adapted substance use for Latino adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Research on Social Work Practice, 28(7), 789-801. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049731516676601

Sadongdong, M. (2018, February 9). 11,000 names figure in validated drug watch list. Manila Bulletin. https://news.mb.com.ph/2018/02/09/11000-names-figure-in-validated-drug-watch-list/

Sauer, A. G., Fedewa, S. A., Kim, J., Jemal, A., & Westmaas, J. L. (2018). Educational attainment & quitting smoking: A structural equation model approach. Preventive Medicine, 116(9), 32-39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2018.08.031

Schepis, T. S., Teter, C. J., & McCabe, S. E. (2018). Prescription drug use, misuse and related substance use disorder symptoms vary by educational status and attainment in U.S. adolescents and young adults. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 189(8), 172-177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.05.017

Shakeshaft, A. P., Bowman, J. A., & Sanson-Fisher, R. W. (2002). Community‐based drug and alcohol counselling: Who attends and why? Drug and Alcohol Review 21(2), 153-162. https://doi.org/10.1080/09595230220139055

Sharma, S. (2003). Measuring life skills of adolescents in a secondary school of Kathmandu: an experience. Kathmandu University Medical Journal, 1(3), 170-176. http://www.kumj.com.np/issue/3/170-176.pdf

Skewes, M. C., & Gonzales, V. M. (2013). The biopsychosocial model of addiction. In P. Miller (Ed.), Principles of addiction: Comprehensive addictive behaviors and disorders (Vol. 1, pp. 61-70). Academic Press.

Sterne, J. A. C., White, I. R., Carlin, J. B., Spratt, M., Royston, P., Kenward, M. G., Wood, A. M., & Carpenter, J. R. (2009). Multiple imputation for missing data in epidemiological and clinical research: Potential and pitfalls. BMJ (Online), 339(7713), 157-160. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b2393

Students from UP. (2016, August 27). EXPLAINER: How serious is the PH drug problem? Here's the data. Rappler. https://www.rappler.com/newsbreak/iq/144331-data-drug-problem-philippines

Sy, T. R., & Hechanova, M. R. (2020). Family support as moderator of the relation between coping skills and substance use dependence among Filipinos who use drugs. Asia-Pacific Social Science Review, 20(1), 91–108. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/340280061_Family_Support_as_Moderator_of_the_relation_between_Coping_Skills_and_Substance_Use_Dependence_among_Filipinos_who_use_drugs/references#fullTextFileContent

United Nations Office of Drug and Crime. (2014, April). Community based treatment and care for drug use and dependence. http://www.unodc.org/documents/southeastasiaand pacific/cbtx/cbtx_brief_EN.pdf

World Health Organization. (1998, February). Wellbeing measures in primary healthcare: The Depcare Project. http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0016/130750/E60246.pdf

World Health Organization. (2004). The ICD-10 Symptoms checklist. https://www.who.int/substance_abuse/research_tools/en/english_icd10.pdf

Zimet, G. D., Dahlem, N. W., Zimet, S. G., & Farley, G. K. (1988). The Multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Journal of Personality Assessment, 52(1), 30-41. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa5201_2