The Influence of Family and Psychological Factors on Self-regulated Learning Behavior of Elementary School Students

Main Article Content

Kanammah Manukaram
Melissa Ng Lee Yen Abdullah


Self-regulated learning behavior is a critical learning skill in the 21st century and should be nurtured since young. This study aimed to contribute new knowledge in behavioral science by examining the influence of family and psychological factors on self-regulated learning behavior of elementary school students. Quantitative questionnaire survey method was employed to collect the data for this study. The sample consisted of 639 elementary school students sampled from schools located in state of Penang, Malaysia. Six instruments were used to gauge the family and psychological factors. The motivated strategies for learning questionnaire, was used to measure students’ self-regulated learning behavior. Findings showed that the combined effects of family and psychological factors explained 36% (R2=.36) [F (5,53) =63.93, p<.05] of the variance in self-regulated learning behavior of elementary school students. Factors with significant influences were parents’ participation (b=.24, p<.05), parental support (b=.10, p<.05), authoritative parenting style (b=.09, p<.05) and intrinsic goal orientation (b=.36, p<.05). The results suggest that to promote self-regulated learning behavior among elementary school students, both family and psychological factors must be taken into consideration as these factors accounted for more than one third of the changes in students’ self-regulated learning. In addition, one of the major findings from this study suggests that family factors are more pertinent than students’ psychological factors in developing self-regulated learning behaviors at elementary level. Collaborations with parents, thus, is an important step when developing intervention to promote students’ self-regulated learning behavior at elementary school level.

Article Details

How to Cite
Manukaram, K., & Ng Lee Yen Abdullah, M. (2021). The Influence of Family and Psychological Factors on Self-regulated Learning Behavior of Elementary School Students. The Journal of Behavioral Science, 16(3), 1-15. Retrieved from
Research Articles


Abdul Hamid, H., Baharum, M., & Sarkowi, A. (2020). Pengaruh efikasi kendiri terhadap motivasi dan pencapaian akademik siswa pendidik [The influence of self-efficacy on motivation and academic achievement of educator students]. Jurnal IPDA, 26(1), 104-112.
Abtholuddin, F. (2013). Hubungan antara efikasi kendiri dan kemahiran belajar dalam kalangan pelajar kejuruteraan [The relationship between self-efficacy and study skills among engineering students] (Master’s thesis). Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.
Ahmid, M. H., Abdullah, M. K., Johari, K., Maddahiri, A. and Asul, H. (2018). Pembelajaran regulasi kendiri dalam kalangan pelajar dalam mata pelajaran bahasa arab sekolah menengah: Satu analisis perbandingan mengikut jenis sekolah [Self -regulatory learning among students in arabic secondary school: A comparative analysis by school type]. Malaysian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (MJSSH), 3(2), 57-64.
Akindipe, O. O. (2019). Investigating the influence of parental involvement on student’s mathematics self-efficacy and achievement: an intervention approach (Doctural dissertation). University of Georgia.
Akoglu, H. (2018). User’s guide to correlation coefficients. Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine, 18(3), 91-93.
Arshat, Z., & Baharudin, R. (2011). Perkaitan Antara Faktor Sosioekonomi dan Kualiti Tingkah Laku Keibubapaan Dalam Keluarga Berisiko [Relationship between socioeconomy factors and quality of parenting behaviors among at-risks families]. Jurnal Kemanusiaan, 9(1), 57-65.
Asbulah, L. H., Lubis, M.A., Aladdin, A., & Sahrim, M. (2018). Tahap motivasi holistik, intrinsik dan ekstrinsik terhadap pembelajaran kosa kata bahasa arab dalam kalangan graduan universiti awam [The level of holistic, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation towards arabic language vocabulary among graduate students in public universities]. Asia Pacific Journal of Educators and Education, 33, 75-93.
Ashley, R. (2006). Examining the father-child relationship: intact vs non intact families and child outcomes of academic performance, conduct and self-esteem. SlideToDoc.
Bear, G.G (2010). School Discipline and Self-discipline: A Pactice Guide to Promoting Prosocial Student Behavior. Guilford Press.
Blair, C. (2002). School readiness: Integrating cognition and emotion in a neurobiological conceptualization of children's functioning at school entry. American Psychologist, 57(2), 111–127.
Bodrova, E., & Leong, D. J. (2007). Tools of the Mind: The Vygotskian Approach to Early Childhood Education (2nd ed.). Prentice Hall.
Byers, B., Anderson, C., Brouwer, N., Codellini, L., Childs, P., & Finlayson, O. (2006). Developing Independent Learners in Chemistry. ECTN Association.
Cardona, B. Watkins, M., & Noble, G. (2009). Parents, diversity and cultures of home and school. University of Western Sydney.
Cheong, K. C., Hill, C., Leong, Y. C., Zhang, C., & Zhang, Z. (2018). “Parents just don’t understand”-generational perceptions of education and work. Higher Education Evaluation and Development, 12(2), 85-98. https://doi10.1108/HEED-06-2018-0016.
Chua, Y. P. (2009). Statistik Penyelidikan Lanjutan Ujian Regresi, Analysis Factor dan Ujian SEM, Buku 5 [Advance Statistial Analysis, Regression Test, Analysis Factors and SEM Test, Book 5]. Mc Graw Hill.
Clark, N. M., & Zimmerman, B. J. (2014). A social cognitive view of self-regulated learning about health. Health Education & Behavior, 4(15), 485-491.
Cohen, J. (1992). A Power Primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 155-159.
Connor, L. A. (2016). Influences on self-regulated learning behavior in low-income children: examining the role of private and social speech as self-regulation tools (Doctoral dissertation). University of Tennessee.
Daniel, G. R., Wang, C., & Berthelsen, D. (2016). Early School-Based Parent Involvement, children’s self-regulated learning behavior and academic achievement. An Australian longitudinal study. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 36, 168-177.
Darling-Hammond, L., Flook, L., Cook-Harvey, C., Barron, B., & Osher, D. (2020). Implications for educational practice of the science of learning and development. Applied Developmental Science, 24(2), 97-140.
Dermitzaki, I., & Kallia, E. (2021). The role of parents and teachers in fostering children’s self-regulated learning skills. In D. Moraitou & P. Metallidou (Eds.), Trends and Prospects in Metacognition Research across the Life Span - A Tribute to Anastasia Efklides. Springer.

Dweck, C.S. (2000). The Development of Ability Conceptions. In A. Wigfield & J. S. Eccles (Eds.), Development of Achievement Motivation (pp.57-88). Academic Press.
Evidence for Learning. (2019). Creating spaces for children’s talk.
Fuentes, M. C., Gracía-Ros, R., Pérez-González, F., & Sancerni, D. (2019). Effects of parenting styles on self-regulated learning and academic stress in Spanish adolescents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(15), Article 2778, 1-19.
Furnham, A. (2014). Increasing Your Intelligence: Entity and Incremental Beliefs About The Multiple “intelligene’. Learning and Individual Differences, 32, 163-167.
Heimpel, U., Qian, X., & Song, W. (2018). Parenting and child self-regulation in Chinese families: A multi-informant study. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 27(7), 2343-2353.
Huang, J., & Prochner, L. (2004). Chinese parenting styles and children's self regulated learning. Journal of Research in Childood Education, 18(3), 227-238.
Jaramillo, J. M., Rendόn, M. I., Muňoz, L., Weis, M., & Trommsdorff, G. (2017). Children’s self-regulation in cultural contexts: The role of parental socialization theories, goals and practice. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 923, 1-9. https://doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00923
Jerry, A., Rahman, S., & Surat, S. (2021). Prokrastinasi Akademik dan Pembelajaran Regulasi Kendiri dalam kalangan Murid Sekolah Rendah [Academic procrastination and self- regulated learning among primary school students]. Jurnal Dunia Pendidikan (World Educational Journal), 3(1), 592-601.
Joyce, C., & Hipkins, R. (Eds.). (2004). Young children’s emergent self-regulated learning skills in a primary science investigation, Proceedings of the Zealand Association for Research in Education (NZARE) Conference, 24-26 November 2004. Wellington, New Zealand.
Kiss, M., Fechete, G., Pop, M., & Susa, G. (2014). Early childhood self-regulation in context: parental and familial environmental influences. Cognition, Brain, Behavior. An Interdisciplinary Journal, 18(1), 55-85.
Khalid, M. (2016). Penglibatan ibu bapa perlu ditingkatkan di sekolah [Parental involvement must be increased in school]. Star.
Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Journal Educational Psychological Measurement, 30, 608.
Kurniawati, L. N. (2011). The relationship between career knowledge, family environment, and learning motivation toward the learning achievement among the xi grade students of architecture department of SMKN 1 Seyegan (Master’s thesis). Universitas Negeri Yogyarkarta.
Latipah, E., Kistoro, H.C.A., & Putranta, H. (2021). How are the parents involvement, peers and agreeableness personality of lecturers related to self-regulated learning? European Journal of Educational Research, 10(1), 413-425.
Law, Y. K. (2009). The role of attribution beliefs, motivation and strategy use in Chinese fifth-graders reading comprehension. Educational Research, 51(1), 77-95.
Lazar, A., Guttmann, J., & Abas, L. (2009). Parental authority in divorced families. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 50(5), 356-368.
Leung, M. T., & Lee, W. S. (2013, December 1-5). The structural model of parenting styles as antecedent on learning motivation and self-regulated learning for undergraduates in Hong Kong. Australian Association for Research in Education (AARE) Annual Conference, Adelaide.
Lowes, S. & Lin, P. (2015). Learning to learn online: Using locus of control to help students become successful online learners. Journal of Online Learning Research, 1(1), 17-48.
Liu, Y. L., & Chang, H. T. (2016). The role of effortful control in the relationships among parental control, intentional self-regulation and adolescence. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25, 2435-2446.
Manukaram, K. (2014). Pengaruh faktor keluarga dan psikolgi terhadap pembelajaran regulasi kendiri murid sekolah rendah [The influence of family and psychological factors on the learning of self-regulation of primary school students] (Doctoral dissertation). Universiti Sains Malaysia.
Manukaram, K., Ng, M. L. Y. A., & Hasan, S. (2013). pengaruh faktor keluarga terhadap pembelajaran regulasi kendiri murid sekolah rendah [The influence of family factors on self -regulated learning of primary school students]. Malaysian Journal Of Learning And Instruction, 10, 179-201. http://e-journal.uum.

Maslebese, M. L. (2013). The relationship between parental support and self-regulated learning behavior of grade 12 learners in Lejweleputswa (Master’s thesis). Central University of Technology, Free State.
Ministry of Education Malaysia. (2012). Masa digunakan murid usia 7 hingga 17 tahun [Time used by students aged 7 to 17 years old] (p. 4). Berita Harian.
Ministry of Education Malaysia. (2015). Malaysian education blueprint 2013-2025. Ministry of Education Malaysia.

Ministry of Education Malaysia. (2017). Natioanl Preschool Standard-Based Curriculum: Standards-Based Curriculum and Asessment Document. Ministry of Education Malaysia.
Mirhashemi, M., & Goodarzi, H. (2014). Self-regulated learning behavior strategies: The role of personal factors (Motivational beliefs and personality). Journal of Educational and Management Studies, 4(1), 152-161.
Mohamad Adnan, M. A., & Yusoff, M. A. (2009). Motivasi pembelajaran pengaturan kendiri dan prestasi akademik: Satu kajian di kalangan pelajar asasi pengajian islam universiti malaya nilam puri [Self-regulated learning motivation and academic performance: a study among university of Malaya Nilam Puri Islamic Studies Foundation Students]. Journal of Al-Tamadun, 4(1), 1-16.
Molden, D. C., & Dweck, C. S. (2006). Finding meaning in psychology: a lay theories approach to self-regulation, social perception, and social development. American Psychologist, 61(3), 192-203.
Mollborn, S. (2017). Young children developmental ecologies and kindergarten readiness, Demography, 53(6), 1853-1882.
Ng, M. L. Y. A. (2008). Children's implicit theories of intelligence: it's relationship with self-efficacy, goal orientations and self-regulated learning. The International Journal of Learning: Annual Review, 15(2), 47-56.
Ngwira, F. F., Emagnaw, A. B., Taibe, P., & Adamseged, H., Y. (2018). The role of intrinsic goal orientation on medical and allied health student deep learning approach. The 8th International Conference of Asian Association of Indigenous and Cultural Psychology (ICAAIP 2017).
Obradović, J., Sulik, M. J., & Shaffer, A. (2021). Learning to let go: Parental over-engagement predicts poorer self-regulation in Kindergartners. Journal of Family Psychology.
Oloye, H. T., & Flouri, E. (2021). The role of the indoor home environment in children’s self-regulation. Children and Youth Services Review, 121, Article 105761.
Othman, M.I.R., Ahmad, N., & Kamaruddin, N. K., (2020) Hubungan antara Motivasi Intrinsik dengan Pencapaian Akademik Pelajar UTHM Kajian Kes Di Malaysia [The relationship between intrinsic motivation and academic achievement of UTHM students: Case Study in Malaysia] (pp. 45-52). Universiti Tun Hussein Onn.
Penang State Education Department. (2021). Statistics on Primary Schools in Penang. Penang Education State Department.
Pino-Pasternak, D., & Whitebread, D. (2010). The role of parenting in children’s self-regulated learning behavior. Education Research Review, 5(3), 220-242.
Pintrich, P. R. (1999). The role of motivation in promoting and sustaining self-regulated learning. International Journal of Educational Research, 31(6), 459-470.
Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D. A. F., Garcia, T., & Mckeachie, W. J. (1991). A Manual for the Use of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ).
Ponnusamy, P. (2005). The influence of self-regulated learning behaviour tendency, achievement goal orientation, class and gender on academic help-seeking behavior among form four students (Doctoral dissertation). Universiti Sains Malaysia.
Ramalingam, S., Maniam, M., & Karuppanan, G. (2019). Penglibatan ibu bapa dalam pencapaian akademik pelajar sekolah tamil di selangor (Parents involvement in selangor tamil school students' academic achievement). Muallim Journal of Social Science and Humanities, 3(3), 308-323.
Sabbagh, M. A., Xu, F., Carlson, S. M., Moses, L. J., & Lee, K. (2006). The development of executive functioning and theory of mind: A comparison of Chinese and U.S. preschoolers. Psychological Science, 17, 74–81. https://doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2005.01667
Salleh, A., Aziz, Z., Mahmud, Z., & Mahyudin, A.A. (2010). Peranan bapa dalam pembangunan sahsiah remaja dan implikasinya terhadap nilai kekeluargaan [The role of fathers in adolescent personality development and its implications for family values]. Jurnal Pendidikan Malaysia, 35(2), 9-17.
Seo, D., & Taherbhai, H. (2009). Motivational beliefs and cognitive processes in mathematics achievement, analyzed in the context of cultural differences: A Korean elementary school example. Asia Pacific Education Review, 10(2), 193-203.
Shen, J. J., Cheah, C. S., & Yu, J. (2018). Asian-American and European-American emerging adults’ perceived parenting styles and self-regulation ability. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 9(2), 140-148.
Sigel, I. E. (2002). The psychological distancing model: A study of the socialization of cognition. Culture & Psychology, 8, 189-214.
Silinskas, G., & Kikas, E. (2019). Parental Involvement in Math Homework: Links to Children’s Performance and Motivation. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 63(1), 17-37.
Stipek, D., & Gralinski, J. H. (1996). Children belief about intelligence and school performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88(3), 397-407.
Sung, W. K. (2019). Meta-Analysis of Parental Involvement and Acehivement in East Asian Countries. Eduction and Urban Society, 52(2), 312-337.
University of Zurich. (2016). 21st century main competencies: self-regulated learning behavior from kindergarten to higher education. https://www.openaccess
Wahid, M. E., Awang, M. M., Ahmad, A. R., & Ahmad, A. (2019). Children’s Self-Regulated Learning Based-Experience through Environment and Culture Rural Community Sarawak. In N. Noordin, & N. Ngadnon (Eds.), Sustainable Development and Societal Wellbeing in The Current Technological Era (pp. 130 - 134). Redwhite Pres.
Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J. S. (2000). Expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 68-81.
Yahaya, A., Maakip, I., Voo, P., & Yusuf, M. Y. (2020). Effects of self-regulated learning, parental involvement and homework on academic achievement of school students. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, 9(2), 380-397.
Zakaria, A., & Salleh, N. M. (2011). Konteks keluarga dan hubungannya dengan penglibatan ibu bapa dalam pendidikan anak-anak di sekolah menengah [Family context and its relationship with parental involvement in their children's education in secondary schools]. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 3(4), 1063-1076.
Zhoc, K. C. H., King, R. B., Law, W., & Mclnerney, D. M. (2019). Intrinsic and extrinsic future goals: their differential effects on student’s control and distal learning outcomes. Psychology in the School, 56(10), 1596-1613.
Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Attaining self-regulation: A Social cognitive perspective. In. M. Boekaets, P. R. Pintrich & Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of Self-regulation (pp.13-39). Academic Press.