Main Article Content
This research aimed to provide insight about the volunteers working in non-profit organizations. Moreover, this research would examine the effect of empowerment and organizational justice on performance with work engagement and organizational commitment as mediating variables. The research was conducted at a non-profit organization in Indonesia known as board for community self-reliance (BKM). The population was 1,862 organizations spread in various cities in East Java, Indonesia. The samples were 329 financial management unit (known as UPK) managers who worked in BKM as volunteers. The data were collected from July to November 2020 and analyzed to construct the latent variables using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The results of the path analysis indicated that work engagement (β = .52, p < .001) and organizational commitment (β = .40, p < .001) positively and significantly affected performance. These two variables also mediated the indirect effect of empowerment and justice on the performance. The results of another hypothesis testing revealed that work engagement positively but insignificantly affected the organizational commitment (β = .05, p = .11). Theoretical implications were discussed considering the impact of perceived organizational support (POS) to the volunteers’ performance mediated by work engagement and organizational commitment. The practical implication of this research was to enhance the volunteers’ performance by developing the work engagement and commitment in a non-profit organization.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Alkahtani, N. A., Iqbal, S., Sohail, M., Sheraz, F., Jahan, S., Anwar, B., & Haider, S. A. (2021). Impact of employee empowerment on organizational commitment through job satisfaction in four and five stars hotel industry. Management Science Letters, 11(3), 813-822. https://doi.org/10.5267/j.msl.2020.10.022
Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1996). Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: an examination of construct validity. Journal of Vocational Behavior,49(3), 252-276. https://doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.1996.0043
Andrew, O. C., & Sofian, S. (2012). Individual factors and work outcomes of employee engagement. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 40, 498-508. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.03.222
Bakhshi, A., Kumar, K., & Rani, E. (2009). Organizational justice perception as a predictor of job satisfaction and organization commitment. International Journal of Business and Management, 4(9), 145-154. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v4n9p145
Bakker, A. B., Schaufeli, W. B., Leiter, M. P., & Taris, T.W. (2008). Work engagement: An emerging concept in occupational health psychology. Journal of Work, Health & Organisations, 22(3), 187-200. https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370802393649
Bahrami, M. A., Montazeralfaraj, R., Gazar, S. H., & Tahti, A. D. (2013). Relationship between organizational perceived justice and organizational citizenship behavior among an Iranian hospital’s employees. Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal, 5(4), 171- 178. https://doi.org/10.14661/2014.838-844
Baran, M., & Sypniewska, B. A. (2020). The impact of management methods on employee engagement. Sustainability,12(1), 426-440. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010426
Berlian, Y.S., & Rahmani, N.S. (2013). The role of leader-member exchange (LMX) on work engagement with collectivism as moderator (Publication No. 126010) [Master thesis, Gajah Mada University]. Repository Universitas Gajah Mada.
Cahyani, A., & Darlis, E. (2013). Kejelasan peran dan pemberdayaan psikologis dalam peningkatan kinerja manajerial [The role of psychological and empowerment in improving managerial performance]. Jurnal Ekonomi Universitas Riau, 21(3), 1-14. https://je.ejournal.unri.ac.id/index.php/JE/article/view/1746/1718
Cheche, S. G., Muathe, S. M. A., & Maina, S. M. (2017). Employee engagement, organisational commitment and performance of selected state corporations in Kenya. European Scientific Journal, 13(31), 317–327. https://doi.org/10.19044/esj.2017.v13n31p317
Chen, G., Kirkman, B. L., Kanfer, R., Allen, D., & Rosen, B. (2007). A multilevel study of leadership, empowerment, and performance in teams. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(2), 331–346. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.92.2.331
Eberlin, R., & Tatum, B. C. (2005). Organizational justice and decision making: When good intentions are not enough. Management Decision, 43(7/8), 1040-1048. https://doi.org/10.1108/00251740510610035
Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchison, S., & Sowa, D. (1986). Perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(3), 500-507. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.71.3.500
Eliyana, A., Ma’arif, S., & Muzakki. (2019). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment effect in the transformational leadership towards employee performance. European Research on Management and Business Economics, 25(3), 144-150 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iedeen.2019.05.001
Gouldner, A. W. (1960). The norm of reciprocity: A preliminary statement. American Sociological Review, 25(2), 161-178. https://doi.org/10.2307/2092623
Greco, P., Laschinger, H. K. S., & Wong, C. (2006). Leader empowering behaviors, staff work empowerment and work engagement/burnout. Nursing Leadership, 19(4), 41-56. https://doi.org/10.12927/cjnl.2006.18599
Greenberg, J. (1986). Determinants of perceived fairness of performance evaluations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(2), 340-342. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.71.2.340
Hamzah, H., Nordin, N. S., Dwiyanti, R., Na’imah, T., & Mawi, N. (2021). The role of well-being, supervisor support and positive feedback on lecturers’ work engagement. The Journal of Behavioral Science, 16(1), 73-84. https://so06.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/IJBS/article/view/245504
Hassan, A., & Al Jubari, I. H. A. (2010). Organisational justice and employee work engagement: LMX as mediator. J for International Business and Entrepreneurship Development, 5(2), 167-178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1504/JIBED.2010.037000
Ibrahim, M. E., & Perez, A. O. (2014). Effects of organizational justice, employee satisfaction, and gender on employees' commitment: evidence from the UAE. International Journal of Business and Management, 9(2), 45-59. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v9n2p45
Imamoglu, S. Z., Ince, H., Turkcan, H., & Atakay, B. (2019). The effect of organizational justice and organizational commitment on knowledge sharing and firm performance. Procedia Computer Science, 158, 899–906. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2019.09.129
Jada, U. R., Mukhopadhyay, S., & Titiyal, R. (2019). Empowering leadership and innovative work behavior: a moderated mediation examination. Journal of Knowledge Management, 23(5), 915-930. https://doi.org/10.1108/JKM-08-2018-0533
Jankingthong, K., & Rurkkhum, S. (2012). Factors affecting job performance: a review of literature. Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences Studies, 12(2), 115-127. https://so02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/hasss/article/view/7140
Jomah, N. B. (2017). Psychological empowerment on organizational commitment as perceived by Saudi academics. World Journal of Education, 7(1), 83-92. https://doi.org/10.5430/wje.v7n1p83
Jones, R. (2018). The relationship of employee engagement and employee job satisfaction to organizational commitment (Publication No. 4860) [Doctoral dissertation, Walden University]. Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies.
Kalay, F. (2016). The impact of organizational justice on employee performance: A survey in Turkey and Turkish context. International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 6(1), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.5296/ijhrs.v6i1.8854
Kim, M., & Beehr, T. A. (2020). Empowering leadership: leading people to be present through affective organizational commitment. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 31(16), 2017-2044. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2018.1424017
Kurniawati, N., Natsir, M., & Respati, H. (2020). Employee performance study: Evaluation of work motivation as mediation with antecedents of supervision aspects. European Journal of Business and Management, 12(25), 77-82. https://doi.org/10.7176/EJBM/12-25-08
Kneefel. R. M. (2006). Organization commitment and volunteers adjustment in the social sector of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Surabaya (Publication No. 3117) [Thesis, Widya Mandala Catholic University]. Repository of Widya Mandala Catholic University.
Kotzé, M., & Nel, P. (2020), The influence of job resources on platinum mineworkers’ work engagement and organisational commitment: An explorative study. The Extractive Industries and Society, 7(1), 146-152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exis.2020.01.009
Lepold, A., Tanzer, N., & Jimenez, P. (2018). Expectations of bank employees on the influence of key performance indicators and the relationship with job satisfaction and work engagement. Social Sciences MDPI, 7(6), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci7060099
Li, A., & Cropanzano, R. (2009). Fairness at the group level: justice climate and intraunit justice climate. Journal of Management, 35(3), 564-599. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0149206308330557
Linggiallo, H., Riadi, S., Hariyadi, S., & Adhimursandi, D. (2021). The effect of predictor variables on employee engagement and organizational commitment and employee performance. Management Science Letters, 11(1), 31-40. https://doi.org/10.5267/j.msl.2020.8.033
Lin, J. T. P., & Ping, N. C. L. (2016). Perceived job autonomy and employee engagement as predictors of organizational commitment. Undergraduate Journal of Psychology, 29(1), 1-16. https://journals.uncc.edu/ujop/article/view/412
Luthans, F. (2011). Organizational behaviour: An evidence-based approach (12th ed.). McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Markos, S., & Sridevi, M. S. (2010). Employee engagement: The key to improving performance. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(12), 89-96. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v5n12p89
Mathis, R. L., Jackson, J. H., Valentine, S. R., & Meglich, P. (2016). Human resource management (15th ed.). Cengage Learning.
Moliner, C., Martínez-Tur, V., Ramos, J., & Cropanzano, R. (2008). Organizational justice and extrarole customer service: The mediating role of well-being at work. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 17(3), 327–348. https://doi.org/10.1080/13594320701743616
Ozer, O., Ugurluoglu, O., & Saygılı, M. (2017). Effect of organizational justice on work engagement in healthcare sector of Turkey. Journal of Health Management, 19(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1177/0972063416682562
Park, K. O. (2019). The relationship between power type, work engagement, and organizational citizenship behaviors. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(6), 1015. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16061015
Piliavin, J. A., & Siegl, E. (2007). Health benefits of volunteering in the Wisconsin longitudinal study. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 48(4), 450–464. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F002214650704800408
Price, J. L., & Muller, C. W. (1986). Handbook of organizational measurement. Pitman.
Rafia, R., Sudiro, A., & Sunaryo. (2020). The effect of transformational leadership on employee performance mediated by job satisfaction and employee engagement. International Journal of Business, Economics and Law, 21(5), 119-125. https://www.ijbel.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/IJBEL21_257.pdf
Rahmadalena, T., & Asmanita, A. (2020), Pengaruh employee engagement, karakteristik pekerjaan terhadap kinerja karyawan pada PT. Bukit Asam, TBK unit dermaga Kertapati Palembang [The effect of employee engagement and job characteristics on the employee performance at PT. Bukit Asam TBK Dermaga Kertapati Unit, Palembang]. Jurnal Ilmiah Bina Manajemen, 3(2), 68-76. http://journal.binadarma.ac.id/index.php/BINAMANAJEMEN/article/view/1094
Rameshkumar, M. (2020). Employee engagement as an antecedent of organizational commitment – A study on Indian seafaring officers. The Asian Journal of Shipping and Logistics, 36(3), 105-112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajsl.2019.11.003
Rantelimbong, O., & Mas’ud, F. (2016). Pengaruh keterikatan karyawan terhadap kinerja karyawan: peran jarak kekuasaan sebagai moderator [The effect of employee engagement on the employee performance: The role of power distance as moderator]. Diponegoro Journal of Management, 5(3), 1-11. https://ejournal3.undip.ac.id/index.php/djom/article/view/14677
Raymond, T., & Mjoli, T. Q. (2013). The relationship between job involvement, job satisfaction and organizational commitment among lower-level employees at a motor-car manufacturing company in East London, South Africa. Journal of Business and Economic Management, 1(2), 25-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.15413/jbem.2012.0106
Rhoades, L., Eisenberger, R., & Armeli, S. (2002). Affective commitment to the organization: the contribution of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(5), 825-836. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.5.825
Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. A. (2017). Organizational behavior (17th ed.). Pearson.
Saks, A. M. (2006) Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(7), 600-619. https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940610690169
Schaufeli, W., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Utrecht work engagement scale: Preliminary manual. Occupational Health Psychology Unit Utrecht University.
Scott, D., Bishop, J. W., & Chen, X. (2003). An examination of the relationship of employee involvement with job, satisfaction, employee cooperation, and intention to quit in U.S. invested enterprise in China. The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 11(1), 3–19. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb028960
Sheng, X. (2014). The empirical inquiry between organizational commitment and employee performance – with X company as an example. Journal of Business Administration Research, 3(1), 59-70. https://doi.org/10.5430/JBAR.V3N1P59
Stander, M. W., & Rothmann, S. (2010). Psychological empowerment, job insecurity and employee engagement. South Africa Journal of Industrial Psychology, 36(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v36i1.849
Suliman, A. B., & Al Kathairi, M. (2013) Organizational justice, commitment and performance in developing countries the case of the UAE. Employee Relations, 35(1), 98-115. https://doi.org/10.1108/01425451311279438
Tisu, L., Lupșa, D., Vîrgă, D., & Rusu, A. (2020). Personality characteristics, job performance and mental health the mediating role of work engagement. Personality and Individual Differences, 153(2), 109644. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2019.109644
U-senyang, S., Trichandhara, K., & Rinthaisong, I. (2017). Antecedents of organizational health in Southern Thailand. The Journal of Behavioral Science, 12(1), 79-94. https://so06.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/IJBS/article/view/75884
Wang, X., Liao, J., Xia, D., & Chang, T. (2010). The impact of organizational justice on work performance. International Journal of Manpower, 31(6), 660-677. https://doi.org/10.1108/01437721011073364
Wibowo. (2012). Manajemen perubahan [Change management] (3rd ed.). Rajawali Pers.
Wilson, P. A. (1999). A theory of power and politics and their effects on organizational commitment of senior executive service members. Administration & Society, 31(1), 120-141. https://doi.org/10.1177/009539999400935510
Zaraket, W., Garios, R., & Malek, L. A. (2018). The impact of employee empowerment on the organizational commitment. International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 8(3), 284-299. https://doi.org/10.5296/ijhrs.v8i3.13528
Zamin, S.A., & Hussin, F. (2021). Effect of leadership styles and work climate on job performance: A mediating role of organizational commitment among university lecturers in Pakistan. Elementary Education Online, 20(2), 497-505. http://ilkogretim-online.org/?mno=60896