A Context Specific Framework for Measurement of Empowerment Resulting from Poverty Reduction Intervention

Main Article Content

Paul Jose P
Vasanthakumari P

Abstract

Academicians differ on the construct of empowerment. Empowerment measured in the context of poverty reduction program introduced in different settings world over has demanded different measurement frameworks. Empowerment itself is one of the most disputed concepts to be handled while interpreting the benefits of poverty interventions. It is, therefore, important to state clearly how the concept will be interpreted and evaluated in each context. The current discussion is about the framework devised for the State of Kerala, one of the most advanced states in the largest democracy in the world, India. The framework becomes relevant because of the several unique features of the state of Kerala, which are quite distinctive from many other places where microfinance has been found to be successful. The paper discusses a conceptual framework for measuring the level of empowerment resulting from microfinance in the State of Kerala.


 

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Section
Research Article

References

[1] S. Sidney, H. Syed, and P. Harshida, “Beyond Credit: Sewa’s Approach to Women’s Empowerment and Influence on Women’s Reproductive Lives in Urban India,” Self Employed Women’s Association (SEWA), Ahmedabad, India, 1995.

[2] A. Ruth and H. Nina,Measuring Empowerment in Practice: Structuring Analysis and Framing Indicators. Washington DC: World Bank, 2005.

[3] N. Page and C. E. Czuba, “Empowerment: What Is It?,” Journal of Extension, vol. 37, no. 5, 1999.

[4] S. Nina, “Conceptualising Empowerment as a Transformative Strategy for Poverty Eradication and the Implications for Measuring Progress.,” presented at the Empowerment of women throughout the life cycle as a transformative strategy for poverty eradication, New Delhi, India, 2001.

[5] R. Chambers, Challenging the professions: frontiers for rural development. London: Intermediate Technology Publications, 1993.

[6] K.O. Mason and H. L. Smith, Women'sEmpowerment and Social Context: Results from Five Asian Countries. Washington, DC:World Bank, 2003.

[7] N. Kabeer, “Reflections on the measurement of women’s empowerment,” inDiscussing Women’s Empowerment: Theory and Practice, A. Sisask, Ed. Stockholm, Sweden: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, 2001, pp. 17–57.

[8] S. Alkire, “Subjective Quantitative Studies of Human Agency,” Soc Indic Res, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 217–260.

[9] D. Narayan, Ed.,Empowerment and Poverty Reduction: A Sourcebook. Washington, DC: World Bank Publications, 2002.

[10] D. Narayan, “Conceptual framework and methodological challenges,” in Measuring Empowerment: Cross Disciplinary Perspectives, Washington, DC: World Bank, 2005, pp. 3–38.

[11] C. Grootaert, “Assessing empowerment at the national level in Eastern Europe and Central Asia,” in Measuring empowerment: Cross- Disciplinary Perspectives, Washington DC: World Bank, 2005, pp.309 - 340.

[12] A. Malhotra and S. Shuler “Women’s empowerment as a variable in international development,” in Measuring Empowerment: Cross Disciplinary Perspective, Washington, DC: World Bank, 2005, pp. 71–88.

[13] N. Wallerstein, “What is the evidence on effectiveness of empowerment to improve health?,” WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Health Evidence Network report, 2006.

[14] L. Cecilia and S. Quiroz, “Understanding and operationalising empowerment.” Overseas Development Institute (London, England), 2009.

[15] K. W. Marie, “Empowering Women Through Savings Groups: A Study from the Wellness and Agriculture for Life Advancement (WALA) Program,” Catholic Relief Services, 2014.

[16] M. H. Hur, “Empowerment in terms of theoretical perspectives: Exploring a typology of the process and components across disciplines,” Journal of Community Psychology, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 523–540, Sep. 2006.

[17] J.L. Parpart, S.M. Rai, and K. Staudt, “Rethinking em(power)ment, gender and development: An introduction,” in Rethinking empowerment: Gender and development in a global/local world, L. P., Jane, M.R. Shirin and K. Staudt, Eds. New York: Routledge, 2003, pp.3 – 21.

[18] R. E. Hess, Studies in Empowerment: Steps Toward Understanding and Action. New York: Routledge, 1984.

[19] N. Wallerstein, “Powerlessness, Empowerment, and Health: Implications for Health Promotion Programs,”American Journal of Health Promotion, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 197–205, 1992.

[20] E. Rosalind, K. Naila, and C. Andrea, “Conceptualising empowerment and the implications for pro poor growth,” Institute of development studies, 2008. [Online]. Available: https://www.gsdrc.org/docs/open/se8.pdf.

[21] K. Blanchard, J. P. Carlos, and A. Randolph, The 3 Keys to Empowerment: Release the Power Within People for Astonishing Results. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2001.

[22] B. Carolyn, K. Erica, and N. Nontokozo, “Microfinance Program Clients and Impact: An Assessment of Zambuko Trust Zimbabwe,” Assessing the Impact of Microenterprise Services (AIMS), 2001. [Online]. Available: https://pdf.usaid. gov/ pdf_docs /Pnacn576.pdf.

[23] B. Carolyn, “Assets and the Impact of Microenterprise Finance Programs. Washington, DC: AIMS, 1996.,” Assessing the Impact of Microenterprise Services (AIMS), 1996. [Online]. Available: https:// www.eldis.org/vfile/upload/1/document/0708/DOC2042.pdf.

[24] D. Elizabeth and J. J. A. Gordon, “Assessing the Impact of Microenterprise Services (AIMS),” Assessing the Impact of Microenterprise Services (AIMS), 2001. [Online]. Available: https:// pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pnacn574.pdf.

[25] H. Todd, Poverty reduced through microfinance: the impact of ASHI in the Philippines. Seremban, Malaysia: CASHPOR Technical Services, 2000.

[26] B. Carolyn, G. Gary, and K. Richard, “The impact of three microfinance programs in Uganda,”USAID/Uganda by the Assessing the Impact of Microenterprise Services (AIMS) Project in association with the Makerere Institute of Social Research (MISR), 2011.

[27] C. Tsilikounas, “ICMC and Project Enterprise Bosnia and Herzegovina,” The International Catholic Migration Commission, 2000. [Online]. Available: https:// www. microfinancegateway. org/sites/default/files/mfg-en-case-study-icmc-and-project-enterprise-bosnia-and-herzegovina-2000.pdf

[28] J.Sebstad, C. Neill, C. Barnes, and G. Chen, “Assessing the Impacts of Microenterprise Interventions: A Framework for Analysis, (Working Paper No. 7),” Center for Development Information and Evaluation, 1995. [Online]. Available: https:// pdf. usaid. gov/ pdf_docs/PNABS523.pdf.

[29] G. Sen and C. Grown, Development, Crises and Alternative Visions: Third World Women’s Perspectives. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1987.

[30] S. Batliwala, “The meaning of women’s empowerment: new concepts from action (from Population policies reconsidered: health, empowerment and rights),” in Population policies reconsidered: health, empowerment, and rights, vol. Harvard series on population and international health, G. Sen, A. Germain, L. C. Chen, and Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies, Eds. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1994, pp. 127–138.

[31] B. Savitri, “Globalization, Poverty and Women’s Empowerment,” in Topic 1: Poverty in a globalizing world at different stages of women’s life cycle, New Delhi, India, 2001, vol. EGM/POV/2001/EP.3.

[32] H. Keleher, “‘Gender norms and empowerment “what works” to increase equity for women and girls,’” in Gender Equity in Health: Shifting Frontiers of Evidence and Action, G. Sen and P. Östlin, Eds. New York, NY: Routledge, 2010, pp. 161–183.

[33] M. B. Acharya, “Women and the subsistence sector : economic participation and household decision-making in Nepal,” The World Bank, SWP526, Jan. 1983.

[34] R. I. Rahman, Impact of Grameen Bank on the situation of poor rural women. Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, Agriculture and Rural Development Division, 1986.

[35] A. Sen, Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. Oxford University Press, 1983.

[36] A. Sen, Persistent Inequalities. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990, pp. 123-49.

[37] C. H. Kieffer, “Citizen empowerment: A developmental perspective ,” Prevention in Human Services, vol. 3, no. 2–3, pp. 9–36, 1984.

[38] “Women, Education and Empowerment: Pathways towards Autonomy,” UNESCO Institute for Education 1995, Hamburg, Germany, Jan.–Feb. 1993

[39] P. Oakley, Ed., Evaluating Empowerment: Reviewing the Concept and Practice. Oxford: INTRAC, 2001.

[40] B. A. Israel, B. Checkoway, A. Schulz, and M. Zimmerman, “Health Education and Community Empowerment: Conceptualizing and Measuring Perceptions of Individual, Organizational, and Community Control,”Health Education & Behavior, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 149–170, Jan. 1994.

[41] J. Holland, R. Alsop, and M. Bertelsen, Empowerment in Practice: From Analysis to Implementation. Washington, DC: World Bank Publications, 2005.

[42] A. Wandersman, “A Framework of Participation in Community Organizations,” Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 27–58, 1981.

[43] P. R. Florin and A. Wandersman, “Cognitive social learning and participation in community development,” American Journal of Community Psychology, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 689–708, Dec. 1984.

[44] J. Drez and A. K. Sen,Hunger and Public Action. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1989.

[45] J. Rowlands, Questioning empowerment: working with women in Honduras. Oxford [England]; Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Oxfam ; Humanities Press International, 1997

[46] C. Swift and G. Levin, “Empowerment: An emerging mental health technology,” Journal of Primary Prevention, vol. 8, no. 1–2, pp. 71–94.

[47] P. Florin and A. Wandersman, “An introduction to citizen participation, voluntary organizations, and community development: Insights for empowerment through research,”American Journal of Community Psychology, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 41–54, 1990.

[48] S. Johnson and B. Rogaly, “Microfinance and Poverty Reduction,” Oxfam GB ; ActionAid,1997.

[49] K. Young, Planning Development With Women: Making a World of Difference. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 1993.

[50] J. Friedmann, Empowerment: the politics of alternative development. Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell, 1992.

[51] C. Rissel, “Empowerment: the holy grail of health promotion?,” Health Promot. Int., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 39–47, 1994.

[52] A. J. Schulz, B. A. Israel, M. A. Zimmerman, and B. N. Checkoway, “Empowerment as a multi-level construct: perceived control at the individual, organizational and community levels,” Health Education Research, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 309–327, 1995

[53] A. Bartlett, Enquiry Points for Empowerment. Dhaka, Bangladesh: CARE, 2004.

[54] A. Ruth, Ed., “Measuring empowerment: country indicators” in,” in Power, Rights and Poverty: Concepts and Connections, Washington, DC: World Bank, 2005, pp. 93–110.

[55] S. R. Khandker, “Microfinance and Poverty: Evidence Using Panel Data from Bangladesh,” The World Bank Economic Review, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 263–286, 2005.

[56] A. Gwen, “An Empirical Analysis of Microfinance: Who are the Clients?,”CGAP, 2011. [Online]. Available: https://www. Micro financegateway.org/sites/default/files/mfg-en-paper-an-empirical-analysis-of-microfinance-who-are-the-clients-2001_0.pdf.

[57] P. Patti, S. Catalina, and W. Michael, “Evaluating empowerment: A framework with cases from Latin

[58] S. Mosedale, “Assessing women’s empowerment: towards a conceptual framework,” Journal of International Development, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 243–257, 2005.

[59] N. Kabeer, The conditions and consequences of choice: reflections on the measurement of women’s empowerment. Geneva, Switzerland: UNRISD, 1999.

[60] M. Ghatak, “Group lending, local information and peer selection,” Journal of Development Economics, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 27–50, 1999.

[61] G. Berhane and C. Gardebroek, “Does Microfinance Reduce Rural Poverty? Evidence Based on Household Panel Data from Northern Ethiopia,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 43–55, 2011.

[62] M. M. Pitt and S. R. Khandker, “The Impact of Group-Based Credit Programs on Poor Households in Bangladesh: Does the Gender of Participants Matter,” Social Science Research Network, Rochester, NY, SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 128918, Oct. 1998.

[63] B. E. Coleman, “The impact of group lending in Northeast Thailand,” Journal of Development Economics, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 105–141, Oct. 1999.

[64] B. E. Coleman, “Microfinance in Northeast Thailand: Who benefits and how much?,” World Development, vol. 34, no. 9, p. 1612‐1638, 2006.

[65] M. Ravallion, “The Mystery of the Vanishing Benefits: An Introduction to Impact Evaluation,” World Bank Econ Rev, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 115–140, 2001.

[66] J. Morduch, “Does Microfinance Really Help the Poor? New Evidence from Flagship Programs in Bangladesh,” Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Research Program in Development Studies., Working Paper 198, 1998.

[67] N. Kabeer, “Resources, Agency, Achievements: Reflections on the Measurement of Women’s Empowerment,” Development and Change, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 435–464, Jul. 1999.

[68] D. Narayan and E. Glinskaya, Eds., Ending Poverty in South Asia: Ideas That Work. Washington, DC: World Bank Publications, 2006.

[69] M. A. Zimmerman, “Taking aim on empowerment research: On the distinction between individual and psychological conceptions,” American Journal of Community Psychology, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 169–177, Feb. 1990.

[70] M. C. Nussbaum, Women and Human Development: The Capabilities Approach. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

[71] S. Pal, “An Analysis of Childhood Malnutrition in Rural India: Role of Gender, Income and Other Household Characteristics,” World Development, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 1151–1171, Jul. 1999.

[72] J. R. Behrman, “Intrahousehold Allocation of Nutrients in Rural India: Are Boys Favored? Do Parents Exhibit Inequality Aversion?,” Oxford Economic Papers, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 32–54, 1988.

[73] R. K. Choudhury and Campaign for Popular Education (Organization), Working children in Bangladesh: the status of un-served children in education : a situation analysis. 2011.

[74] M. M. Pitt, M. R. Rosenzweig, M. N. Hassan, M. M. Pitt, and M. R. Rosenzweig, “Productivity, health and inequality in the intra-household distribution of food in low-income countries,” American Economic Review, pp. 1139–1156, 1990.

[75] B. A. Ackerly, “Testing the tools of development: credit programmes, loan involvement, and women’s empowerment,” IDS Bull, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 56–68, Jul. 1995.

[76] A. M. Goetz and R. S. Gupta, “Who takes the credit? Gender, power, and control over loan use in rural credit programs in Bangladesh,”World Development, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 45–63, Jan. 1996.

[77] S. M. Hashemi, S. R. Schuler, and A. P. Riley, “Rural credit programs and women’s empowerment in Bangladesh,” World Development, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 635–653, Apr. 1996.

[78] B. Agarwal, “”Bargaining” and Gender Relations: Within and Beyond the Household,” Feminist Economics, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1–51, Jan. 1997.

[79] S. S. Bloom, D. Wypij, and M. D. Gupta, “Dimensions of women’s autonomy and the influence on maternal health care utilization in a north indian city,” Demography, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 67–78.

[80] “Empowerment of Women through the life cycle as a transformative strategy for poverty eradication,” presented at the Expert Group Meeting, New Delhi, India, 2001.

[81] A. Sen, Development as freedom. New York: Knopf, 1999.

[82] J. Ashe and L. Parrott, Impact Evaluation of Pact’s Women’s Empowerment Program in Nepal: A Savings and Literacy Led Alternative to Financial Institution Building. Massachusetts, MA: Brandeis University, 2001.

[83] M. A. Zimmerman and J. Rappaport, “Citizen participation, perceived control, and psychological empowerment,” American Journal of Community Psychology, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 725–750, Oct. 1988.

[84] C. Fruzsina, “Understanding the concept of power,” in Power, rights and poverty: Concepts and connections, World bank, 2005, pp. 137–146.

[85] R. Montgomery, D. Bhattacharya, and D. Hulme, “Credit for the poor in Bangladesh: The BRAC rural development program and the government thana resource development and employment program,” in Finance against Poverty, II vols., P. Mosley and D. Hulme, Eds. New York, NY: Routledge, 1996, pp. 86–158.

[86] R. D. M. Panjaitan-Drioadisuryo and K. Cloud, “Gender, self-employment and microcredit programs An Indonesian

[87] B.B. Niraula, and D. Lawoti, “Women's autonomy and reproductive behavior in two urban areas of Nepal”, Contributions to Nepalese Studies, 25, pp.157-172, 1998.

[88] A. S. Deaton, The Analysis of Household Surveys: A Microeconometric Approach to Development Policy. Baltimore, MD: World Bank Publications, 1997.

[89] A. Deaton and S. Zaidi, “Guidelines for Constructing Consumption Aggregates For Welfare Analysis,” Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Research Program in Development Studies., Working Paper 217, Sep. 1999.

[90] A. Deaton and J. Muellbauer, Economics and Consumer Behavior. Cambridge ; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1980.

[91] Z. Manfred, J. Julia, and A. V. Gabriela, “Developing and testing poverty assessment tools. Results from accuracy tests in Peru,” The IRIS Center at the University of Maryland, Maryland, Mar. 2005.

[92] J. Deutsch and J. Silber, “The Order of Acquisition of Durable Goods and the Measurement of Multidimensional Poverty,” in Quantitative Approaches to Multidimensional Poverty Measurement, N. Kakwani and J. Silber, Eds. Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2008, pp. 226–243.

[93] M. Schreiner, “Seven extremely simple poverty scorecards ,” Enterprise Development and Microfinance, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 118–136, Jun. 2010.

[94] J. Johannsen and M. Zeller, “Operational Poverty Targeting by Means of Proxy Indicators - The Example of Peru,” International Association of Agricultural Economists, 2006 Annual Meeting, August 12-18, 2006, Queensland, Australia 25492, 2006.

[95] J. Johannsen, “Operational Poverty Targeting In Peru ? Proxy Means Testing With Non-Income Indicators,” International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth,Working Paper 30, 2006.

[96] X.V. Edig, S. Schwarze and M. Zeller, “Poverty assessment by proxy-means tests: Are indicator-based estimations robust over time? A study from central Sulawesi, Indonesia,” Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture, vol. 52, pp. 27-49, Autumn, 2013.

[97] B. Carolyn, G. Gary, and K. Richard, “Impact of Three Microfinance Programs in Uganda,” the Assessing the Impact of Microenterprise Services (AIMS), USAID/Uganda, 2011.

[98] K. Naila, “Money Can’t Buy Me Love? Re-evaluating Gender, Credit and Empowerment in Rural Bangladesh,” Institute of Development Studies, 363, 1998.

[99] R. Amin, S. Becker, and A. Bayes, “NGO-Promoted Microcredit Programs and Women’s Empowerment in Rural Bangladesh: Quantitative and Qualitative Evidence,” The Journal of Developing Areas, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 221–236, 1998.

[100] R. Amin, R. B. Hill, and Y. Li, “Poor Women’s Participation in Credit-based Self-employment: The Impact on their Empowerment, Fertility, Contraceptive Use, and Fertility Desire in Rural Bangladesh,” Pakistan development review, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 93–119, Jan. 1995.

[101] S. R. Schuler, S. M. Hashemi, and A. P. Riley, “The influence of women’s changing roles and status in Bangladesh's fertility transition: Evidence from a study of credit programs and contraceptive use,” World Development, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 563–575, Jan. 1997.

[102] P. Shahnaj and L. Ingrid-Ute, “Empowerment of Rural Women in Bangladesh: A Household Level Analysis,” presented at the Rural Poverty Reduction through Research for Development and Transformation, Deutscher Tropentag- Berlin, 2004.

[103] I. K. Asim, “Measuring Empowerment at the Community Level: An Economist’s Perspective,” in Measuring Empowerment: Cross Disciplinary Perspectives, N. Deepa, Ed. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2005, pp. 267–284.

[104] L. C. Smith, U. Ramakrishnan, A. Ndiaye, L. Haddad, and R. Martorell, The Importance Of Women’s Status For Child Nutrition In Developing Countries: Washington, D.C: International Food Policy Research Institute, 2003.

[105] S. Schuler and S. Hashemi, “Family Planning Outreach and Credit Programs in Rural Bangladesh,” Human Organization, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 455–461, Dec. 1995.

[106] S. Fiona, A. Sajeda, and T. N. Ruchira, “The impact of an integrated micro-credit program on Women’s empowerment and fertility behavior in rural Bangladesh,” Population Council, New York, NY, Policy Research Division Working Papers No. 115, 1998.

[107] S. Kishor, “Empowerment of women in Egypt and links to the survival and health of their infants,” presented at the Seminar on Female Empowerment and Demographic Processes: Moving beyond Cairo, Lund, Sweden, 1997.

[108] S. Jejeebhoy, “Operationalising women’s empowerment: The case of rural India,” presented at the Seminar on Female Empowerment and Demogrphic Processes: Moving beyond Cairo, Lund, Sweden, 1997.