Identifying the Triggering Factors for Female Career Choice: The Case of Tour Guide in Sri Lanka

Main Article Content

Tharaka Ashwini Komanda Mudalige

Abstract

     The common scenario of the plight of underrepresentation of female in the industry of tourism is yet a considerable bottom line as it plays a significant mantle during the analysis of the industry as an inclusive entity. Subsequently, the paper review outlines, an identification of triggering factors that channel contemporary career choice of female in Sri Lanka, a supreme instance experiment is career of Tour Guide, which is not easily approachable in the spectrum of profession of female career pool in respective country region. A total of 350 undergraduates majoring in Tourism Management were participated to the qualitative research while the qualitative research conducted using 10 National female tourist guides and 5 female undergraduates of the same course in same National University. The data analyzed using Path Analysis and qualitative data with Narrative analysis. Moreover, the study emphasizes two ultra-important objectives (a) Identify the triggering factors for female career choice of tour guide, Sri Lanka (b) Explain how these factors affect on female career choice of tour guide. Resulted in the implication of both quantitative and qualitative methods; the indication of significant relationship of family involvement, and attitude towards women, interest and career barriers on their specific career choice. Additionally career self-efficacy is affected by attitude toward woman, family involvement and by career barriers. The collaboration of factors and figures regarding the matter may depict important managerial implications to be addressed in order to upsell the choice of being employee in non-traditional career sector in tandem with enhance the female participation in required segments.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Section
Research Article

References

Agee, J. (2009). Developing qualitative research questions: a reflective process. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 22(4), 431–447.

Ali, S. R., McWhirter, E. H., & Chronister, K. M. (2005). Self-Efficacy and Vocational Outcome Expectations for Adolescents of Lower Socioeconomic Status: A Pilot Study. Journal of Career Assessment. 13(1), 40-58.

Babin, B. J., Hair, J. F., & Boles, J. S. (2008). Publishing Research in Marketing Journals Using Structural Equation Modeling. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 16(4), 279–286.

Betz, N. E., & Hackett, G. (2006). Career self-efficacy theory: Back to the future. Journal of Career Assessment, 14(1), 3-11.

Blustein, D. L., & Fouad, N. A. (2008). Changing face of vocational psychology: The transforming world of work. In W. B. Walsh (Ed.), Biennial review of counseling psychology (Vol 1., pp. 129–155). Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.

Bores-Rangel, E., Church, A. T., Szendre, D., & Reeves, C. (1990). Self-efficacy in relation to occupational consideration and academic performance in high school equivalency students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 37(4), 407–418.

Byrne, B. M. (2010). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: basic concepts, applications, and programming (multivariate applications series) (2nd ed., pp. 106-108). New York: Taylor & Francis Group.

Connell, J. P., Spencer, M. B., & Aber, J. L. (1994). Educational Risk and Resilience in African-American Youth: Context, Self, Action, and Outcomes in School. Child Development, 65(2), 493.

Department of Census and Statistics. (2017). Sri Lanka Labor Force Survey: Annual report 2017. Retrieved from http://www.statistics.gov.lk/LabourForce/StaticalInformation/AnnualReports/2017

Department of Census and Statistics. (2019). Sri Lanka Labor Force Survey: Annual report 2019. Retrieved from http://www.statistics.gov.lk/LabourForce/StaticalInformation/AnnualReports/2019

Fassinger, R. E. (1994). Causal models of career choice in two samples of college women. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36(2), 225–248.

Fitzgerald, L. F., Gelfand, M. J., & Drasgow, F. (1995). Measuring sexual harassment: Theoretical and psychometric advances. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 17(4), 425–445.

Flores, L. Y., & O’Brien, K. M. (2002). The career development of Mexican American adolescent women: A test of social cognitive career theory. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 49(1), 14–27.

Flores, L. Y., Navarro, R. L., Smith, J. L., & Ploszaj, A. M. (2006). Testing a model of nontraditional career choice goals with Mexican American adolescent men. Journal of Career Assessment, 14(2), 214–234.

Fouad, N. A., & Guillen, A. (2006). Outcome expectations: Looking to the past and potential future. Journal of Career Assessment, 14(1), 130–142.

Gati, I., Gadassi, R., Saka, N., Hadadi, Y., Ansenberg, N., Friedmann, R., & Asulin-Peretz, L. (2011). Emotional and personality-related aspects of career decision-making difficulties: Facets of career indecisiveness. Journal of Career Assessment, 19(1), 3–20.

Gati, I., Landman, S., Davidovitch, S., Asulin-Peretz, L., & Gadassi, R. (2010). From career decision-making styles to career decision-making profiles: A multidimensional approach. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76(2), 277–291.

Gottfredson, L. S. (2002). Gottfredson’s theory of circumscription and compromise. In D. Brown (Eds.), Career choice and development (4th ed., pp. 85–148). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. (2008). Structural equation modelling: Guidelines for determining model fit. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6(1), 53-60.

Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55.

Koenig, A. M., & Eagly, A. H. (2014). Evidence for the social role theory of stereotype content: Observations of groups’ roles shape stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107(3), 371–392.

Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., & Hackett, G. (1994). Toward a unifying social cognitive theory of career and academic interest, choice, and performance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 45(1), 79–122.

Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., & Hackett, G. (2000). Contextual supports and barriers to career choice: A social cognitive analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47(1), 36–49.

Lent, R. W., Lopez Jr, A. M., Lopez, F. G., & Sheu, H.B. (2008). Social cognitive career theory and the prediction of interests and choice goals in the computing disciplines. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 73(1), 52–62.

MacCallum, R. C., Widaman, K. F., Preacher, K. J., & Hong, S. (2001). Sample size in factor analysis: The role of model error. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 36(4), 611–637.

Malterud, K., Siersma, V. D., & Guassora, A. D. (2016). Sample size in qualitative interview studies: Guided by information power. Qualitative Health Research, 26(13), 1753–1760.

McWhirter, E. H. (1997). Perceived barriers to education and career: Ethnic and gender differences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 50(1), 124–140.

McWhirter, E. H., Hackett, G., & Bandalos, D. L. (1998). A causal model of the educational plans and career expectations of Mexican American high school girls. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 45(2), 166–181.

O’Brien, K. M., Friedman, S. M., Tipton, L. C., & Linn, S. G. (2000). Attachment, separation, and women’s vocational development: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47(3), 301–315.

Oh, Y.J., Jia, Y., Lorentson, M., & LaBanca, F. (2013). Development of the educational and career interest scale in science, technology, and mathematics for high school students. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 22(5), 780–790.

Olle, C. D., & Fouad, N. A. (2014). Parental support, critical consciousness, and agency in career decision making for urban students. Journal of Career Assessment, 23(4), 533–544.

Savage, C. T., & Fouad, N. A. (1994). Traditionality of college major and attitudes towards work-family balance: Vocational correlates. Journal of Career Assessment, 2(2), 163–178.

SLTDA. (2018). National tourist guide. Retrieved from http://www.sltda.lk/search/node/nationaltourguidelecturer.

Swanson, J. L., Daniels, K. K., & Tokar, D. M. (1996). Assessing perceptions of career-related barriers: The career barriers inventory. Journal of Career Assessment, 4(2), 219–244.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, N. S. (2007). Assessing the Fit Models. Using Multivariate Statistics (7th ed., pp. 560–564). New York, United States of America: Pearson Education.

Tang, M., Fouad, N. A., & Smith, P. L. (1999). Asian Americans’ career choices: A path model to examine factors influencing their career choices. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 54(1), 142–157.

Tinklin, T., Croxford, L., Ducklin, A., & Frame, B. (2005). Gender and attitudes to work and family roles: The views of young people at the millennium. Gender and Education, 17(2), 129–142.

Trading Economics. (2020). Sri Lanka Tourism Revenues. Retrieved from https://tradingeconomics.com/sri-lanka/tourism-revenues

Valenzuela, A. (1993). Liberal gender role attitudes and academic achievement among Mexican-Origin adolescents in two houston inner-city catholic schools. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 15(3), 310–323.

Walpola, R. (2018, March 08). John wants more women in tourism sector. The Dailymirror. Retrieved from http://www.ft.lk/front-page/John-wants-more--women-in-tourism-sector/44-650519.

Watt, H. M. G., Richardson, P. W., Klusmann, U., Kunter, M., Beyer, B., Trautwein, U., & Baumert, J. (2012). Motivations for choosing teaching as a career: An international comparison using the FIT-Choice scale. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(6), 791–805.