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The main purpose of this research is to develop the digital citizenship scale and norms of students in higher education institutions. The specific purpose of this research were 1) develop the digital citizenship indicators and behavioral Indicators of students in higher education institutions, 2) develop and investigate the validity, discrimination, and reliability of digital citizenship scale of students in higher education institutions, and 3) develop the norms for digital citizenship scale of students in higher education institutions. The sample of the study was 3,604 students in higher education institutions who were selected by using multi-stage sampling.
The research instrument was the digital citizenship scale. The data were analyzed by using median, interquartile range, percentile, T-score, and confirmatory factor analysis. The result revealed that:
1. There were 11 indicators and 25 sub-indicators for digital citizenship of students. Their appropriateness was between a high level and the highest level.
2. The digital citizenship scale of students contained 50 items. The questions were situation test with 4 behavioral choices. Regarding the quality of the digital citizenship scale, it was found that the questions had content validity, discrimination, and construct validity of all questions met the criteria. The reliability was 0.971. Moreover, the digital citizenship scale correlated with empirical data and had construct validity (Chi-square = 36.489, df = 27, p-value = 0.105, RMSEA = 0.023, CFI = 0.998, SRMR = 0.010).
3. The norms for assessing of digital citizenship of students can be divided into 4 levels: digital citizenship at a high level, fairly high level, fair level, and low level.
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