Main Article Content
This research study aims to analyze conceptual metaphors of love from song lyrics written by Thai songwriters. Previous literature explores conceptual metaphors of romantic love in different music genres. This study sheds light on the conceptual metaphors in Thai pop or T-pop music, along with underlying characteristics of romantic love in the digital age. The data were collected from 24 songs produced by Nadao Music and available on YouTube from August 2019 to September 2021. The theoretical framework relies on metaphor identification procedure and conceptual metaphor theory. From 166 metaphorical expressions identified, LOVE which is the target domain is characterized by 12 source domains. The findings also highlight both similarities and differences between conceptualizations of love in the present study and those from previous studies. In this study, a love relationship is the most addressed notion, followed by a lover or an object of love, an emotional state, and a difficulty, respectively. Characteristics of love in the digital age are observed in relation to the representation theory in mass communication. It is noticeable that almost all linguistic expressions are considered conventionalized metaphors, whereas a few are novel or creative metaphors. This study also provides a recommendation for further studies in considering conceptual metonymy which helps to understand physio-psychological aspects of love, along with its role that facilitates comprehension of metaphors.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Any unauthorized copying, publication, reproduction or distribution of copyrighted works appeared in Manutsat Paritat: Journal of Humanities is an infringement of the copyright owners’ rights. To authorize the copying, publication, reproduction or distribution of copyrighted works to be appeared in other printed materials or any online media, please write to MPJHthaijo@gmail.com for permission.
Ansah, G. (2010). The Cultural basis of conceptual metaphors: The case of emotions in Akan and English. Papers from the Lancaster University Postgraduate Conference in Linguistics & Language Teaching 2010 (LAEL PG 2010), Department of Linguistics and English Language, Lancaster University, pp. 2-25.
Bagley, L., Kimberly, C. (2017). Technology use and its association with romantic relationships. Intimate Relationships and Social Change, 11, 217-236. https://aquila.usm.edu/fac_pubs/19348
Barcelona, A. (2000). Metaphor and metonymy at the crossroads: A cognitive perspective. Berlin and New York: Mouton De Gruyter.
Croft, W., & Cruse, D. A. (2004). Cognitive linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dancygier, B., & Sweetser, E. (2014). Figurative language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dittakit, A. (2012). Conceptual metaphors in the songs composed by Nitipong Hornak. (Unpublished master's thesis). Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand.
Evans, V., & Green, M. (2006). Cognitive linguistics: An introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Hall, S. (1997). Representation: Cultural representations and signifying practices. London: Sage Publications & Open University.
Kanchananant, J. (1997). The content of Thai popular songs, perception of its utility and satisfaction among teenagers. (Unpublished master's thesis). Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
Knowles, M., & Moon, R. (2006). Introducing metaphor. London: Routledge.
Kovecses, Z. (1986). Metaphors of anger, pride and love: A lexical approach to the structure of concepts. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Kövecses, Z. (1989). Emotion concepts. New York/Heidelberg: Springer.
Kövecses, Z. (2000). Metaphor and emotion: Language, culture, and body in human feeling. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kövecses, Z. (2007). Towards a theory of metonymy. In V. Evans, B. K. Bergen, & J. Zinken (Eds.), The Cognitive Linguistics Reader. London: Equinox, 335-359.
Lakoff, G. (1993). The contemporary theory of metaphor. In A. Ortony (Ed.), Metaphor and Thought. Cambridge University Press, 202-251.
Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors we live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1999). Philosophy in the flesh: The embodied mind and its challenge to western thought. New York: Basic Books.
Langeslag, S. J. E., & van Strien, J. W. (2016). Regulation of romantic love feelings: Preconceptions, strategies, and feasibility. PLoS ONE, 11(8), Article e0161087. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0161087
Lasuka, P. (2013, September 15). Hormones: Temporary chemistry of rebellion. https://www.newmandala.org/ hormones-temporary-chemistry-of-rebelliousness/
Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Emotion and adaptation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Leech, G. (1969). A linguistic guide to English poetry. London: Longmans.
Likhitphongsathorn, T & Sappapan, P. (2013). Study of English code-mixing and codeswitching in Thai pop songs. The 3rd International Conference on Foreign Language Learning and Teaching 2013. http://www.fllt2013.org/private_folder/Proceeding/494.pdf
Lukšík, I., & Guillaume, M. (2018). Representations of love in the early stages of love, Human Affairs, 28(3), 271-284.
Metaveevinij, V. (2019). Representations of love and relationship of girls in song lyrics of girl groups and duos: from Sao Sao Sao to BNK48. Dhurakij Pundit Communication Arts Journal, 13(1), 80-129.
Muangkaew, N., & Nitnara, A. (2021). Love metaphors in the lyrics of Thongchai Mcintyre. Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences University of Phayao, 9(1), 108-124.
Ngamjitwongsakul, P. (2005). Love metaphors in modern Thai songs. Manusya, 8(2), 14-29.
Panther, K-U., & Thornburg, L. (1999). The potentiality for actuality metonymy in English and Hungarian. In K.-U. Panther, G. Radden (eds.), Metonymy in Language and Thought. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: Benjamins, 91-120.
Pilishvili T. S., Koyanongo E. (2016). The representation of love among Brazilians, Russians and Central Africans: A comparative analysis. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, 9(1), 84-97.
Pragglejaz Group. (2007). MIP: A method for identifying metaphorically used words in discourse. Metaphor and Symbol, 22(1), 1-39.
Putthivanit, T. (2020, July 20). Phee nai watthanatham sakon chakkhuamchuea suwithicheewit thurakit laekhwamnanthoeng [Ghost in global culture: From beliefs to lifestyles, businesses and entertainment]. https://www.prachachat.net/d-life/news-494313
Radden, G., & Kövecses, Z. (1999). Towards a theory of metonymy. In In K.-U. Panther, & G. Radden (Eds.), Metonymy in Language and Thought. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 17-60.
Rammaat, K. (2013). A comparative study of love metaphors in Thai folk songs and Thai pop songs. (Unpublished master's thesis). Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok, Thailand.
Rejeg, I. M. (2016). Metaphoric and metonymic conceptualization of LOVE in Indonesian. International Journal of Linguistics Literature and Culture, 2(3), 71-83.
Richards, I. A. (1936). The philosophy of rhetoric. London: Oxford University Press.
Roseman, I. J., Wiest, C., & Swartz, T. S. (1994). Phenomenology, behaviors, and goals differentiate discrete emotions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(2), 206–221. https://doi.org/10.1037/002235220.127.116.11
Ruthrof, H. (1997). Semantics and the body: Meaning from Frege to the postmodern. University of Toronto Press.
Saeed, J. (2003). Semantics. Massachusetts: Blackwell.
Shaver, P., Schwartz, J., Kirson, D., & O'Connor, C. (1987). Emotion knowledge: Further exploration of a prototype approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(6), 1061–1086. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1681
Sornkaew, S. (2017). Conceptual metaphor ‘third person’ of love in Thai songs. (Unpublished master's thesis). Silpakorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
Steen, G. (2010). A method for linguistic metaphor identification: From MIP to MIPVU. John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Sternberg, R. J. (1986). A triangular theory of love. Psychological Review, 93(2), 119–135. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.93.2.119
Ullmann, S. (1962). Semantics: An introduction to the science of meaning. Oxford Blackwell.
Ungerer, F. and Schmidt, H.-J. (2006). An introduction to cognitive linguistics. Harlow: Pearson.
Uthaicharoenpong, P. (2021, August 23). Na pluk duangdao [The field where stars are grown]. https://readthecloud.co/nadao-bangkok/
Wattanasuk, S. (2006). Love metaphors in Thai teenage pop songs. (Unpublished master's thesis). Thammasat University, Bangkok, Thailand.