Models of Narrations to Present ‘Upakkilesa 16’ in Sabaimuang’s Kalapaksi

Main Article Content

Parichat Payungsri


The objective of this study was studying strategies that Sabaimuang used to present ‘upakkilesa 16’ - a doctrine in Bhudhism - in Kalapaksi. The result yielded that the author presented the issue with the theme and plot which portray roles and deeds of a charater who possess th upakkilesa. Also, background, which was in the later half of Bhuddist Era, and conversation were used as the presentation strategies. The title and main character was named to reflected the doctrine and the essences of the upakkilesa were conveyed via condemning. Also, metaphor, simili, connotative meaning and narration were used to conveyed the massages. The most prominent flavors in the story were resentment, wrath and fear.

Article Details

How to Cite
Payungsri, P. (2021). Models of Narrations to Present ‘Upakkilesa 16’ in Sabaimuang’s Kalapaksi. WIWITWANNASAN, 5(3), 89–115. Retrieved from
Academic articles / Research articles


Arunwech,. Y. (1983). The comparativeness of the plays in the royal performances in the reign of King Rama II. (Master’s thesis). Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok.

Chakrachai, C. (2016). Art of Language Creation in Buddhist Novels of Female Writers. (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phayao, Phayao.

Jaroenjitrkam, P. (2012). Lak Karn Khien Wijan Wannakam. (In Thai). [Principles of Writing Literary Criticism]. (2nd ed.). Bangkok: Thammasat University.

Kosolwat. S. (1987). Wannakan: Lak Lae Withikan. (In Thai). [Literature: Principles and Methods]. Chiangmai. Chiang Mai University.

Mantasut, S. (1982). Wannakam Thai Patjuban. (In Thai). [Current Thai literature]. Bangkok: Odeon Store.

Payungsri, P. (2011). The Language Use for Buddhism Presentation in Sabaimuang’s Novels. (Master’s thesis). Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok.

Payungsri, P. (2019). An Analysis of Styles and Cultural Life Reflecting in Sabaimuang's Novels. Pathumthani. Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi.

Payutto, P.A. (Phra Dhammapitaka). (2016). Dictionary of Buddhism (34th ed.). Bangkok: Dhammasapar publisher.

Rattanakul, S. (2001). Autthasart. (In Thai). [Introduction to semantics]. Nakornpathom: Mahidol University.

Rodloy, C. (2001). Kan Khien Sarakadee. (In Thai) [Non-Fiction Writing]. (2nd ed.). Bangkok: Kasetsart University.

Rungrat, P. (2003). Kae Lai Mai Hom Krishna Asokesin. (In Thai) [Krishna Asokesin’s Writing Styles]. Bangkok: Na Petch Press.

Sabaimuang. (2007). Kalapaksi. (In Thai) [The Black Bird]. Bangkok: Puendee Press.

Sangkhaphanthanon, T. (1995). Wannakam Wijan. (In Thai). [Literary Criticism]. Bangkok: Kledthai

Satawethin, C. (1975). Silpa Karn Prapan. (In Thai). [Art of Writing]. (2nd ed.). Bangkok: Aksorn Charoen Tat.

Thamwaja, W. (2006). Steppe : Phrases and expressions that reflect Thai social values. Liberal Arts Journal, 1 (2) 48-56.