Workplace Heterosexist Discrimination, Workplace Sexual Identity Management Strategies and Job satisfaction of LGB Employees

Main Article Content

Natchanick Cheowcharn
Witsinee Bovornusvakool
Juthatip Wiwattanapantuwong

Abstract

This study aimed to examine the relationship between heterosexist discrimination in the workplace and job satisfaction of LGB employees based on the mediating roles of the four types of workplace sexual identity management strategies. The strategies included Passing (PA), Covering (CO), Implicitly Out (IO), and Explicitly Out (EO). This research used a quantitative research methodology. The data was collected through an online test from 200 employees with gender diversity in three groups: gay men, lesbians, and bisexual employees. The results showed that workplace heterosexist discrimination was negatively related to job satisfaction among these LGB employees. The findings indicated that (1) the job satisfaction of LGB employees who are perceived as highly heterosexist in the workplace would be decreased and (2) workplace sexual identity management strategies of PA, CO, IO, and EO significantly mediated the effect of workplace heterosexist discrimination on job satisfaction. It means that such strategies influence the relationship between heterosexual discrimination in the workplace and the work satisfaction of LGB employees.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Section
Research Articles

References

ความหลากหลายและการรวมเป็นหนึ่งเดียว. (ม.ป.ป.). การสนับสนุนพนักงาน LGBTมากความสามารถที่เชลล์. https:// www.shell.co.th/th_th/careers/diversity-inclusion/lgbt-talent-at-shell.html

บุษกร สุริยสาร. (2557). อัตลักษณ์และวิถีทางเพศ ในประเทศไทย/องค์การแรงงานระหว่างประเทศประจำประเทศไทย กัมพูชา และ สาธารณรัฐประชาธิปไตยประชาชนลาว; โครงการส่งเสริมสิทธิความหลากหลาย และความเท่าเทียมในโลกของการทำงาน (PRIDE). กรุงเทพ: องค์การแรงงานระหว่างประเทศ.

พิมลพรรณ อิศรภักดี. (2558). ต่างวัยต่างทัศนะต่อความหลากหลายทางเพศในสังคมไทย. กรุงเทพฯ: สถาบันวิจัยประชากรและสังคม มหาวิทยาลัยมหิดล

รัตนวัฒน์ จันทร์อำนวยสุข, Balzer C., & LaGata, C. (2558). การเคารพคนข้ามเพศเปรียบเทียบกับการเกลียดกลัวคนข้าม เพศ ประสบการณ์ทางสังคมของคนข้ามเพศในประเทศไทย. กรุงเทพ: เครือข่าย เพื่อนกะเทยไทย และTransgender Europe (TGEU).

สุรชัย ประกอบ. (2560). ความสามารภในการรับมือกับวัฒนธรรมที่หลากหลายและความคิดสร้างสรรค์ในการทำงานของผู้ที่มีอัตลักษณ์หลากหลายทางเพศ (LGBT) ตามการรับรู้ของบุคลากรภาครัฐ ในจังหวัดสงขลา. (วิทยานิพนธ์รัฐประศาสนศาสตรมหาบัณฑิต). มหาวิทยาลัยสงขลานครินทร์

Anderson, M. Z., Croteau, J. M., Chung, Y. B., & DiStefano, T. M. (2001). Developing an assessment of sexual identity management for lesbian and gay workers. Journal of Career Assessment, 9, 243-260.

https://doi.org/10.1177/106907270100900303

Button, S. B. (2001). Organizational efforts to affirm sexual diversity: A cross-level examination. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(1), 17.

Cheung, F., & Chan, W. (2021). Sexual identity management strategies and occupational well-being: a latent profile analysis. Journal of Career occupational well-being: a latent profile analysis. Journal of Career Development, 48(4), 430-442. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894845319856113

Chrobot-Mason, D., Button, S. B., & DiClementi, J. D. (2001). Sexual - identity management strategies: An exploration of antecedents and consequences. Sex Roles, 45(5), 321-336

Chung, Y. B. (2001). Work discrimination and coping strategies: Conceptual frameworks for counseling lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients. The Career Development Quarterly, 50(1), 33–44. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-0045.2001.tb00887.x

Cooper, C., & Dewe, P. (2008). Well-being-absenteeism, presenteeism, costs and challenges. Occupational Medicine, 58(8), 522-524.

Crocker, J., & Major, B. (1989). Social stigma and self-esteem: The self-protective properties of stigma. Psychological Review, 96(4), 608.

Croteau, J. M. (1996). Research on the work experiences of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people: An integrative review of methodology and findings. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 48(2), 195-209.

Croteau, J. M., Anderson, M. Z., DiStefano, T. M., & Kampa-Kokesch, S. (2000). Lesbian, gay, and bisexual vocational psychology: Reviewing foundations and planning construction. In R. M. Ruperto, K. A. DeBord, & K. J. Bieschke (Eds.), Handbook of counseling and psychotherapy with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients (pp. 383-408). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Croteau, J. M., Anderson, M. Z., & VanderWal, B. L. (2008). Models of workplace sexual identity disclosure and management: Reviewing and extending concepts. Group & Organization Management, 33(5), 532-565. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601108321828

D'augelli, A. R., & Grossman, A. H. (2001). Disclosure of sexual orientation, victimization, and mental health among lesbian, gay, and bisexual older adults. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 16(10), 1008-1027.

Fassinger, R. E., & Miller, B. A. (1996). Validation of an inclusive model of homosexual identity formation on a sample of gay men. Journal of Homosexuality, 32, 53-78. https://doi.org/10.1300/J082v43n02_05

Fassinger, R. E., & Arseneau, J. R. (2007). “I’d rather get wet than be under that umbrella”: Differentiating the experiences and identities of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people. In K. Bieschke, R. Perez, & K. DeBord (Eds.), Handbook of counseling and psychotherapy with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients (2nd ed., pp. 19-50). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

George, D., & Mallery, M. (2010). SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference, 17.0

Update (10th ed.). Boston: Pearson.

Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Griffin, P. (1991). Identity management strategies among lesbian and gay educators. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 4(3), 189–202. https://doi.org/10.1080/0951839910040301

Griffin, P. (1992). From hiding out to coming out: Empowering lesbian and gay educators. In K.M. Harbeck (Ed.), Coming out of the classroom closet (pp.167-196). Binghamton, NY: Harrington Park Press.

Griffith, K. H., & Hebl, M. R. (2002). The disclosure dilemma for gay men and lesbians: “Coming out” at wo Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 1191-1199.

Hair 2006 Hair J.F., Black W.C., Babin B.J., Anderson R.E., & Tatham R.L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis (6th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson.

Herek, G. M. (1990). The context of anti-gay violence: Notes on cultural and psychological heterosexism. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 5(3), 316-333.

Herek, G. M., Kimmel, D. C., Amaro, H., & Melton, G. B. (1991). Avoiding heterosexist bias in psychological research. American Psychologist, 46(9), 957.

Jackson, A. W., & Andrews, G. A. (2000). Turning points 2000: Educating adolescents in the 21st century.

Teachers College Press.

Jung, P. B., & Smith, R. F. (1993). Heterosexism: An ethical challenge. SUNY Press.

King, E. B., Mohr, J. J., Peddie, C. I., Jones, K. P., & Kendra, M. (2017). Predictors of identity management: An exploratory experience - sampling study of lesbian, gay, and bisexual workers. Journal of Management,

(2), 476-502. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206314539350

Newheiser, A. K., & Barreto, M. (2014). Hidden costs of hiding stigma: Ironic interpersonal consequences of concealing a stigmatized identity in social interactions. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 52,58-70.

Ragins, B. R., & Cornwell, J. M. (2001). Pink triangles: antecedents and consequences of perceived workplace

discrimination against gay and lesbian employees. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(6), 1244. https://doi.org/ 10.1037/0021-9010.86.6.1244

Sears, J. T. (1997). Thinking critically/intervening effectively about homophobia and heterosexism. In J. T. Sears & W. L. Williams (Eds.), Overcoming heterosexism and homophobia: Strategies that work (pp. 13-48). New York: Columbia University Press.

Tatum, A. K., Formica, L. J., & Brown, S. D. (2017). Testing a social cognitive model of workplace sexual identity

management. Journal of Career Assessment, 25(1), 107-120. https://doi.org/10.1177/1069072716659712

Waldo, C. R., Hesson-Mclnnis, M. S., & D'Augelli, A. R. (1998). Antecedents and consequences of victimization of

lesbian, gay and bisexual young people: A structural model comparing rural university and urban samples. American Journal of Community Psychology, 26, 307-334.

Waldo, C. R. (1999). Working in a majority context: A structural model of heterosexism as minority stress in the workplace. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 46(2), 218.

Woods, J. D. (1993). The corporate closet: The professional lives of gay men in America. New York: Free Press.