เปรียบเทียบระบบสาธารณสุขของแคนาดาในการรับมือโรคระบาดระหว่างไข้หวัดใหญ่ H1N1 และ COVID-19

Main Article Content

พรนภัส วรรัตนานุรักษ์

บทคัดย่อ

การเกิดขึ้นของโรคระบาดส่งผลสำคัญต่อระบบสาธารณสุขของประเทศแคนาดาในฐานะที่เป็นสถาบันหนึ่งที่คงอยู่มาอย่างยาวนาน อีกทั้งยังเป็นปัจจัยสำคัญที่เข้ามาสั่นคลอนความมีเสถียรภาพของระบบสาธาณสุขซึ่งหยั่งรากลึกเชิงโครงสร้างมาจนถึงปัจจุบัน ส่งผลให้สถาบันดังกล่าวต้องเผชิญกับความเปลี่ยนแปลงเพื่อรับมือกับโรคระบาดที่เกิดขึ้น โดยการเปลี่ยนแปลงที่เกิดขึ้นภายในระบบสาธารณสุขของแคนาดาเป็นการเปลี่ยนแปลงแบบค่อยเป็นค่อยไป ซึ่งเน้นไปที่การเปลี่ยนแปลงเชิงนโยบายเพื่อเตรียมพร้อมตอบสนองต่อภาวะฉุกเฉิน โดยเรียกการเปลี่ยนแปลงดังกล่าวว่า “การเปลี่ยนแปลงแบบเบี่ยงเบน (Institutional Drift)” การเปลี่ยนแปลงเช่นนี้สะท้อนให้เห็นว่าระบบสาธารณสุขของประเทศแคนาดาไม่มีความพร้อมในการรับมือกับโรคระบาดมาตั้งแต่ต้น และทำได้เพียงรับมือสถานการณ์แบบเฉพาะหน้าเท่านั้น บทความนี้ทำการศึกษาระบบสาธารณสุขของประเทศแคนาดาผ่านกรอบทฤษฎีเส้นทางการพัฒนาของสถาบัน (Path dependence) และการเปลี่ยนแปลงเชิงสถาบัน (Institutional change) โดยมีการเปรียบเทียบการรับมือกับโรคระบาด 2 โรค ในช่วงเวลาที่ต่างกันระหว่างโรคไข้หวัดใหญ่สายพันธุ์ใหม่ชนิดเอ (H1N1) และโรค ติดเชื้อไวรัสโคโรนา (COVID-19)

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

บท
Articles

References

Path Dependence, Critical Juncture, Institutional Drift, Public Health Agency of Canada, Pandemic

Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, “We are at a critical juncture in the COVID-19pandemic,” World Health Organization, (website), https://www.facebook.com/watch/?v=359868048551718 (accessed 20 May 2021).

CDC, “Outbreak of 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Wuhan, China,” CDC, (website), https://www.cdc.gov/csels/dls/locs/2020/outbreak-of-2019-novel-coronavirus- 2019-ncov-in-wuhan-china.html. (accessed 29 June 2020).

The New York Times, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/11/health/coronaviruspandemic-who.html (accessed 29 June 2020).

Public Health Agency of Canada, “Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Outbreak update,” Government of Canada, (website), https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/diseases/2019-novel-coronavirus-infection.html (accessed 27 September 2021).

Jonathan Oberlander, “Introduction: COVID-19: Politics, Inequalities, and Pandemic,” Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, Vol. 45, No. 6 (2020), 905-06.

Caroline Tuohy, “The Reforms of the 1990s,” in Accidental Logics: The Dynamics of Change in the Health Care Arena in the United States, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 89.

Government of Canada, “The role of Public Health Agency of Canada,” Government of Canada, (website), https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/corporate/mandate/about-agency/mandate.html (accessed 10 October 2021).

Sanneke Kuipers, “Paths of the Past or the Road Ahead? Path Dependency and Policy Change in Two Continental European Welfare States,” Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis, Vol.11, No. 2 (2009), 163-80.

John Twigg, “COVID-19 as a ‘Critical Juncture’: A Scoping Review,” Global Policy, (11 December 2020), 1.

Wolfgang Streeck and Kathleen Thelen, “Introduction: Institutional Change in Advanced Political Economies,” in Beyond Continuity Institutional Change in Advanced Political Economies, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), 24-26.

Alastair Stark and Brian Head, “Institutional amnesia and public policy,” Journal of European Public Policy, Vol. 26, No. 10 (2019).

ไชยวัฒน์ ค้ำชู และ นิธิ เนื่องจำนงค์, การเมืองเปรียบเทียบ ทฤษฎี แนวคิด และกรณีศึกษา (Comparative Politics: Theories, Concepts & Case Studies), (กรุงเทพฯ: สำนัก พิมพ์แห่งจุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย, 2559), 134.

Peter Hall, Governing the Economy: The Politics of State Intervention in Britain and France, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986).

Ellen Immergut and Karen Anderson, “Historical institutionalism and West European Politics,” West European Politics, Vol. 31, No. 1-2 (Jan-Mar 2008), 345-69.

ไชยวัฒน์ คํ้าชู, ระบบเศรษฐกิจการเมืองญี่ปุ่น: ความเปลี่ยนแปลงและความต่อเนื่อง, (กรุงเทพฯ: โครงการสันติไมตรีไทย-ญี่ปุ่น, 2550).

James Mahoney and Kathleen Thelen, “A Theory of Gradual Institutional Change,” in Explaining Institutional Change Ambiguity, Agency and Power, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 1-37.

Marc Lalonde, A New Perspective on the Health of Canadians, (Ottawa: April, 1974).

Health Canada, Health Promotion in Canada: A Case Study, (Health Canada, 1997).

Health and Welfare Canada, “Achieving Health for All: A Framework for Health Promotion,” Government of Canada, (website), https://www.canada.ca/en/healthcanada/services/health-care-system/reports-publications/health-care-system/achieving-health-framework-health-promotion.html (accessed 5 July 2021).

WHO, “The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion,” WHO, (website), https://www.who.int/teams/health-promotion/enhanced-wellbeing/first-global-conference (accessed 8ฃJuly 2021).

The Federal Provincial and Territorial Advisory Committee on Population Health, “Strategies for population health: Investing in the health of Canadians” (Meeting of the Ministers of Health, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Health Canada, 1994).

Ministers of Health and Health Promotion/Healthy Living, Creating a Healthier Canada: Making Prevention a Priority, (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2010).

The National Advisory Committee on SARS and Public Health, Learning from SARS: Renewal of Public Health in Canada, (Ottawa: Health Canada, 2003).

Nathan Baker et al., “H1N1 Flu of 2009 in Canada,” The Canadian Encyclopedia, (website), https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/h1n1-flu-of-2009-incanada (accessed 7 March 2021).

Public Health Agency of Canada, Executive Summary, (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2010), 6.

Alexia Campbell et al., “Risk of severe outcomes among patients admitted to hospital with pandemic (H1N1) influenza,” Canadian Medical Association Journal, No. 182 (2010), 349-55.

Raisa Deber, Christopher W. McDougall, and Kumanan Wilson, “Financing and Delivering Public Health in Canada's Provinces and Territories: Approaches, Issues and Options” (A research paper prepared for the Public Health Agency of Canada, 2006).

Laura C. Rosella et al., “Pandemic H1N1 in Canada and the use of evidence in developing public health policies - A policy analysis,” Social Science & Medicine, No. 83 (2013), 3.

Marija Zivkovic Gojovic et al., “Modelling mitigation strategies for pandemic (H1N1) 2009,” Canadian Medical Association Journal, No. 181 (2009), 673-80.

Public Health Agency of Canada, “Public Health Agency of Canada – Unpublished data,” 2020.

Henry B, Canadian Pandemic Influenza Preparedness: Health sector planning guidance (Canada Communicable Disease Report, 4 January 2018).

Government of Canada, “Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Canada’s response,” Government of Canada, (website), https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/diseases/2019-novel-coronavirus-infection/canadas-reponse.html (accessed 11 February 2021).

Joshua Greenberg and Bernard Gauthier, “Canada needs a fresh strategy for pandemic communication,” POLICY OPTIONS POLITIQUE, (website), https://policyoptions.irpp.org/magazines/february-2021/canada-needs-a-fresh-strategy-forpandemic-communications/ (accessed 12 June 2021).

Michael Marshall, “The lasting misery of coronavirus long-haulers,” Nature, (website), https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-02598-6 (accessed 20 February 2021).

Huffpost, https://www.huffpost.com/archive/ca/entry/covid-19-commercial-mattgreenshields_ca_5ef92d89c5b6ca970911634b (accessed 20 February 2021).

George Rust et al., “Role of the primary care safety net in pandemic influenza,” American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 99, (2009), S316-24.

Philip D. Sloane et al., “Syndromic surveillance for emerging infections in office practice using billing data,” Annals of Family Medicine, Vol. 4, No. 4 (July/August 2006), 351-58.

Joanne Kearon and Cathy Risdon, “The Role of Primary Care in a Pandemic: Reflections During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Canada,” Journal of Primary Care & Community Health, Vol. 11, (2020), 2.

Rahim-Jamal S, Bhaloo T, and Quail P, “Developing a national role description for medical directors in long-term care,” Can Fam Physician, Vol. 56, (2010), e30-35.

Mario Possamai, A Time of Fear: How Canada Failed Our Health Care Workers and Mismanaged Covid-19 (Ottawa: Canadian Federation of Nurses Union, 2020), 9.

Canadian Institute for Health Information, “COVID-19 Cases and Deaths Among Health Care Workers in Canada,” CIHI, (website), https://www.cihi.ca/en/covid-19-cases-and-deaths-in-health-care-workers-in-canada (accessed 27 February 2021).

DW News, https://www.dw.com/en/coronavirus-latest-who-says-health-workersaccount-for-10-of-global-infections/a-54208221. (accessed 27 February 2021).

M. Zhan, “Letter to the Editor: Death from COVID-19 of 23 Health Care Workers in China,” The New England Journal of Medicine, No. 382 (2020), 2267-68.

The Globe and Mail, https://www.theglobeandmail.com/canada/alberta/articleroughly- 13000-health-care-workers-file-workplace-injury-claims-tied/ (accessed 28 February 2021).

Canadian Federation of Nurses Unions, “In Memoriam: Canada’s health care workers who have died of COVID-19,” CFNU, (website), https://nursesunions.ca/covidmemoriam/.(accessed 28 February 2021).

Montreal Gazette, https://montrealgazette.com/opinion/opinion-quebecs-health-careworkers-need-more-than-thanks (accessed 28 February 2021).

South China Morning Post, https://www.scmp.com/news/china/society/article/3076323/third-coronavirus-cases-may-be-silent-carriers-classified (accessed 1 March 2021).

CBC News, https://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/trudeau-promises-better-stockpile-1.5539148 (accessed 4 March 2021).

CBC News, https://www.cbc.ca/news/health/covid-19-nurses-protectivegear-1.5518900 (accessed 4 March 2021).

CBC News, https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/toronto-covid-mask-rationinghospitals-1.5509731 (accessed 4 March 2021).

Stefan Elbe, Security and Global Health: Toward the Medicalization of Insecurity, (Malden, MA: Polity Press, 2010), 9.

Global Health Security Index 2019, “Inaugural Global Health Security Index Finds No Country Is Prepared for Epidemics or Pandemics,” NTI, (website), https://www.nti.org/newsroom/news/inaugural-global-health-security-index-finds-no-countryprepared-

epidemics-or-pandemics/. (accessed 21 March 2022).

WHO, “World Health Day debate on international health security,” WHO, (website), https://www.who.int/director-general/speeches/detail/world-health-day-debate-oninternational-health-security (accessed 21 March 2022).

Anthony Giddens, The consequences of modernity, (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1990).

Anthony Giddens, Modernity and Self-Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age, (Standford, CA.: Standford University Press, 1991).

Daniel G. Bausch and Lara Schwarz, “Outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in Guinea: Where Ecology Meets Economy,” Neglected Tropical Diseases, Vol. 8, No. 7 (July 2014), 1-5.