Changes in Form and Meaning of Sacred Symbols from Dvaravati to Rattanakosin Period

Main Article Content

Jakkrin Junlaprom
Asa Thongthammachart


This study is a descriptive research examining the sacred symbols in terms of form and meaning shown on the antiques that have been found from the Dvaravati to Rattanakosin period. Purposive sampling is applied to select sources from the published photos. The scope of research embraces changing patterns of symbols and their variations that have been transformed over time. A sacred symbol can be defined as the symbol representing ‘blessing’ or ‘prosperity’. In Thailand, anointed sheets engraved with sacred symbols have been existed since Dvaravati period. Assumably, these sacred symbols were influenced by the Indian arts as evidenced by the picture of an elephant which was considered as one of Indian sacred symbols. These sacred elephant symbols are still used in Brahmin religion. The sacred symbols can be categorized into two types: fertility symbols (e.g. lotus, fish, and pot) and monarchy symbols (e.g. tiered umbrella, ankusha or elephant goad, and shanka or conch). However, when comparing Dvaravati’s with the present-day sacred symbols, some differences can be detected. For example, a one-tier umbrella was transformed into many-tier umbrella, or a sacred symbol of two fish once existed in Dvaravati period is no longer used in the royal ceremony nowadays.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Junlaprom, J., & Thongthammachart, A. (2019). Changes in Form and Meaning of Sacred Symbols from Dvaravati to Rattanakosin Period. University of the Thai Chamber of Commerce Journal Humanities and Social Sciences, 37(3), 108–124. Retrieved from
Research Articles


Chandavich, B., & Chandavich, N. (2002). Royal coronation. Bangkok, Thailand: Continuing Thai heritage Project. (in Thai).

Chiachanpong, P. (2002). Ha Pra Ha Chao: Regalia. Bangkok, Thailand: Matichon. (in Thai).

Fine Arts Department. (2009). Dvaravati’ s art: The origin of Buddhist’ art. Bangkok, Thailand: Amarin Printing and publishing. (in Thai).

Indravut, P. (2005). Dvaravati: The Archaeological evidence analysis study. Bangkok, Thailand: Saksopha printing. (in Thai).

Indravut, P. (2010). “Open the Door to Dvaravati” Lecture at Uthong National Museum.

Krachaechan, P. (2001). The archaeological excavations at Baan Nong Chik: The Stone Crafts. MuangBoran, 27(1), 141-146. (in Thai).

Kruathongkiaw, N. (2010). Detect Luck Sami goddess. Bangkok, Thailand: Museun Press. (in Thai).

Laomanachareon, S. (2007). Chakravartin and arts. In Suchit Wongthet (Ed.). Chakravartin: The supporter of Thai people (p.34-35). Bangkok, Thailand: Bangkok Metropolitan,
Department of Culture Sport and Tourism. (in Thai).

Pinkhanngern, V. (2008). Artistically of Royal packaging. Bangkok, Thailand: Amarin Printing. (in Thai).

Saisingha, S. (2004). Dvaravati’s art: The first Buddhist’s culture in Thailand. Bangkok, Thailand: MuangBoran. (in Thai).

Suksawat, S., M.R. (1994). From Dvaravati to Rattanakosin Period: The King Rama 3 Monument, he should wear his hat. Bangkok, Thailand: MuangBoran. (in Thai).

Yubhodi, D. (1965). Dhammachakkra. Bangkok, Thailand: Fine Arts Department. (in Thai)